Allograft Rejection and Blood Transfusion

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    There is a terminology that is used in transplantation that refers to first set or second set rejection. Essentially, this is a specific term used in transplantation to denote a primary or a secondary adaptive immune response. In the example shown, you can see a strain A mouse that is being used as a donor for a skin graft onto a strain B mouse. After three to seven days, this graft will still be present on the recipient. There will be no evidence at that point of time of immunological rejection. However, that does not mean that this graft isn’t being recognized as foreign. Because if we leave the recipient mouse for a few days longer, we will see that around about day 7-14, the graft is rejected. And this is referred to as first set rejection. Looking now in the center of the diagram, again a strain A donor mouse and a strain B recipient mouse. However, if the recipient, the strain B mouse is sensitized by previous graft from a strain A donor, then we see a much more rapid rejection; what in transplantation terminology is referred to as the second set rejection. This is because immunological memory has been generated. And a much faster and stronger secondary immune response is being generated. Looking at the right side of the diagram now, we again have a strain A donor mouse and a strain B recipient mouse. But the recipient strain B is injected with lymphocytes from another strain B animal that has previously rejected a strain A graft. In other words we are transferring memory lymphocytes into this mouse. Therefore when transplanted, there will be a second set rejection, the faster stronger secondary type immune response. Looking at the time course of rejection in patients receiving a transplant,...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Allograft Rejection and Blood Transfusion by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Transplantation Immunology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Allograft Rejection
    • A Closer Look on Blood Transfusion

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Intestine
    2. Liver
    3. Heart
    4. Kidney
    5. Pancreas
    1. Has a period of latency before rejection
    2. Occurs after a first set rejection
    3. Occurs after being sensitized with lymphocytes from a mouse that experienced a first set rejection
    4. Occurs rapidly
    5. Requires immunological memory
    1. Acute
    2. Chronic
    3. Hyperacute
    4. Accelerated acute
    5. Accelerated chronic
    1. Cornea- not vascularized, immune cells cannot mediate a rejection process
    2. Blood- antigens and antibodies can be addressed using immunosuppressive therapy
    3. Skin- not subject to immune mediated rejection
    4. Hematopoietic Stem cells- produce their own immunoprotective cells
    5. Liver- stand alone circulation, immune cells cannot mediate a rejection process

    Author of lecture Allograft Rejection and Blood Transfusion

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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