Acute rheumatic fever is quite an
interesting type of autoimmune disease.
It occurs due to molecular mimicry between group
A Streptococcus pyogenes and human antigens.
The Streptococcus pyogenes M protein and
N-acetyl-glucosamine have structures
that are very similar to cardiac myosin,
laminin and other self antigens.
The result is a carditis caused by these cross-reactive
antibodies that recognize valve endothelium and laminin.
There is also cross reaction
of Th1 cells and Th17 cells.
And these release
The inflammatory lesions can also affect the
joints, the subcutaneous tissue and the CNS.