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Tumor Vaccines

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    Another approach is to actually develop vaccines that you can immunize against tumors. These could be prophylactic vaccines against virus-associated tumors. And there are already a number of examples of those. Liver cancer is linked to Hepatitis B virus, so immunizing against Hepatitis B virus should reduce the level of liver cancer. Cervical cancer is associated with human papilloma viruses and the gardasil vaccine which consists of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18, and cervarix which consists of just two strains - 16 and 18, is used to immunize young females against the development of cervical cancer. Of course very often one may need to treat a patient that has already developed a tumor. For tumor antigens, in most cases the aim is primarily to induce specific cytotoxic T-cell responses. But sometimes antibody may also be desirable. The vaccine provenge, which is a prostate cancer vaccine uses the patient’s own cells to develop a vaccine. Tumor vaccines can target dendritic cells in vivo. The tumor antigen is conjugated to an antibody against a dendritic cell surface molecule. For example, DEC205. So the aim here is that you have a tumor antigen and you use the antibody to take that tumor antigen to the dendritic cells. And then the tumor antigen will be taken up by the dendritic cells, processed and presented to T-cells. Monocytes or CD34+ precursors can be loaded with tumor antigens and differentiated into dendritic cells using cytokines, such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. So you take patient cells, incubate them with the antigen, make the dendritic cells develop from the blood monocytes. And then re-infuse the dendritic cells back into the patient. Provenge or Sipuleucel-T is approved by the FDA for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant (hormone-refractory) prostate cancer. In...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Tumor Vaccines by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Tumor Immunology.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Prostate cancer
    2. Cervical cancer
    3. Hodgkin lymphoma
    4. Liver cancer
    5. Acute Promyelocytic leukemia
    1. Induction of specific cytotoxic T cell responses
    2. Prevent patient from contracting cancer associated virus
    3. Induction of CD4+ mediated immune response
    4. Up-regulation of cytotoxic cytokines towards cancer associated virus
    5. Immunosuppression to prepare for chemotactic therapies
    1. Dendritic cells
    2. Plasma cells
    3. Treg cells
    4. CD8+ T cells
    5. Macrophages

    Author of lecture Tumor Vaccines

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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