Tumor Vaccines

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    00:01 Another approach is to actually develop vaccines that you can immunize against tumors.

    00:09 These could be prophylactic vaccines against virus-associated tumors.

    00:14 And there are already a number of examples of those.

    00:18 Liver cancer is linked to Hepatitis B virus, so immunizing against Hepatitis B virus should reduce the level of liver cancer.

    00:28 Cervical cancer is associated with human papilloma viruses and the gardasil vaccine which consists of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18, and cervarix which consists of just two strains - 16 and 18, is used to immunize young females against the development of cervical cancer.

    00:51 Of course very often one may need to treat a patient that has already developed a tumor.

    00:57 For tumor antigens, in most cases the aim is primarily to induce specific cytotoxic T-cell responses.

    01:04 But sometimes antibody may also be desirable.

    01:08 The vaccine provenge, which is a prostate cancer vaccine uses the patient’s own cells to develop a vaccine.

    01:17 Tumor vaccines can target dendritic cells in vivo.

    01:22 The tumor antigen is conjugated to an antibody against a dendritic cell surface molecule.

    01:28 For example, DEC205.

    01:30 So the aim here is that you have a tumor antigen and you use the antibody to take that tumor antigen to the dendritic cells.

    01:39 And then the tumor antigen will be taken up by the dendritic cells, processed and presented to T-cells.

    01:48 Monocytes or CD34+ precursors can be loaded with tumor antigens and differentiated into dendritic cells using cytokines, such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4.

    02:05 So you take patient cells, incubate them with the antigen, make the dendritic cells develop from the blood monocytes.

    02:15 And then re-infuse the dendritic cells back into the patient.

    02:20 Provenge or Sipuleucel-T is approved by the FDA for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant (hormone-refractory) prostate cancer.

    02:36 In this strategy on day one, the patient undergoes leukapheresis to isolate precursors of dendritic cells.

    02:49 Prostatic acid phosphatase linked to the cytokine GM-CSF is incubated with these isolated blood cells.

    03:01 And over the course of two or three days, the GM-CSF causes differentiation of these blood leukocytes into dendritic cells.

    03:11 And the prostate acid phosphatase tumor antigen gets delivered via these dendritic cells, when infused back into the patient.

    03:24 T-cells within the patient will become activated, that are specific for this tumor antigen.

    03:30 The whole process is repeated at weeks two and four.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Tumor Vaccines by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Tumor Immunology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Prostate cancer
    2. Cervical cancer
    3. Hodgkin's lymphoma
    4. Liver cancer
    5. Acute promyelocytic leukemia
    1. Processing antigen material and presenting it on their surface to other cells of the immune system
    2. Phagocytosis of antigen material that is presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells
    3. Stimulating antigen-presenting cells to express foreign antigen to other cells in the immune system
    4. Upregulation of cytotoxic cytokines against tumor cells
    5. Inhibition of cytotoxic T cells from recognizing self antigens as foreign
    1. Monocyte
    2. Natural killer cell
    3. CD4+ T cell
    4. CD8+ T cell
    5. B cell

    Author of lecture Tumor Vaccines

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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    clear and easy to understand
    By Kewalee R. on 05. April 2019 for Tumor Vaccines

    very good pacing, clear, and well structured course. Thank you !