Thyroid Adenomas and Thyroid Carcinomas

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Let’s take a look at all the different times in which you want to worry about thyroid cancer in your patient. First, take a look at adenomas, then we actually will take a look at the carcinomas and when, as I told you, it becomes relevant. Let’s take a look at the risk factors of thyroid cancer. Incidence of 3 per 100,000 per year. Ionizing radiation, genetic factors are pretty big, big risk factors for thyroid cancer. A picture here, do not be afraid. We have dealt with this or we have dealt with parts of this that are quite important to you in neoplasia. However, in thyroid cancer, let us focus upon the RET that you see here in your box. The RET proto-oncogene is specific for a type of thyroid cancer that you want to know of and that is going to be medullar cancer of the thyroid which is then seen as being part of a component of MEN 2A and 2B; not the most common thyroid cancer, is it? No. Encodes for receptor tyrosine kinase, the things that you’ve seen before. Just to make sure that we put things into perspective is the left branch here. You’ve dealt with RAAS before. And with RAAS, at some point in time, you’ll be focusing about… will be focusing upon follicular cancer of the thyroid. Follicular cancer of the thyroid, not follicular lymphoma; that’s translocation. 14,18 bcl-2 has nothing to do with follicular cancer of the thyroid. So, I need you to be familiar with what I’m referring to here… HRAS. Now, with RAAS, we already know about RAAS, so is it with GTP, so is it with RAF and MEK and such. Then you get on into tumour suppressor genes including P15 and especially P16. In this wonderful...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Thyroid Adenomas and Thyroid Carcinomas by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Thyroid Gland Disorders.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. RET proto-oncogene mutation
    2. EFGR mutation
    3. HRAS mutation
    4. B-RAF mutation
    5. GTPase mutation
    1. Presence of "hot" nodules
    2. Present in males
    3. Present in children
    4. Solitary nodule
    5. History of significant radiation exposure
    1. Homogenous histological features
    2. Well encapsulated
    3. Solitary
    4. Gain of function of TSH receptor
    5. No invasion
    1. Papillary
    2. Medullary
    3. Follicular
    4. Anaplastic
    5. Lymphoma

    Author of lecture Thyroid Adenomas and Thyroid Carcinomas

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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