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Therapeutic Blocking of Pathological Cytokines and Therapeutic Cytokines – Cell-Mediated Immunity

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    00:01 We’ve heard about many different cytokines and it is very clear that they are crucially important in playing many, many different roles in controlling immune responses.

    00:11 But they are potentially very dangerous molecules if they are produced in excessive quantities.

    00:17 And this can happen in pathological situations where the cytokines are produced inappropriately and can cause pathology.

    00:26 There is therefore a need to develop therapeutic agents that can block the activity of cytokines.

    00:34 And one way of doing that is to produce monoclonal antibodies.

    00:39 These antibodies could be directed against the cytokine themselves, or alternatively, they could be directed against cytokine receptors, and prevent binding of the cytokine to the receptor.

    00:52 Of course such antibodies should not trigger the receptor.

    00:56 So we need to make sure that such antibodies don’t mimic the effect of cytokine in triggering the receptor.

    01:02 But one can produce such antibodies that essentially get in the way of the cytokine binding to the receptor, but do not themselves trigger the receptor.

    01:12 And here’s an example of a number of agents that are used therapeutically in the clinic.

    01:19 Some of these are antibodies against cytokines, others are antibodies against cytokine receptors.

    01:26 I won’t read through this, you can read it perfectly well yourself.

    01:29 I’ll just pick out one of these as an example.

    01:32 If you look in the middle there you can see anti-TNFα.

    01:35 And this is an agent that is used actually in a number of different conditions - rheumatoid arthritis, plaque psoriasis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, and so forth.

    01:49 In all of these conditions, there is excessive production of TNFα that is contributing to the pathology.

    01:56 So these agents, at least in a subset of patients in each of these groups, can be very beneficial in treatment.

    02:08 Conversely, sometimes in a pathological situation, there may be either underproduction of a cytokine or it may be that one can beneficially stimulate responses using cytokines.

    02:21 So as well as the situation where you may want to block cytokine activity, there are other pathological situations and disease situations where you can use cytokines as therapeutic agents.

    02:35 And again, I’m not going to read through this whole list.

    02:38 But interferons clearly have anti-viral activity, so can be of potential use in infection.

    02:47 Interleukin-2 is an immunostimulatory cytokine, so you can use that to stimulate immune responses and so forth.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Therapeutic Blocking of Pathological Cytokines and Therapeutic Cytokines – Cell-Mediated Immunity by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Humoral Immunity and Cell-Mediated Immunity. It contains the following chapters:

    • Therapeutic Blocking of Pathological Cytokines
    • Therapeutic Cytokines

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. TNFα
    2. IL-10
    3. TGFβ
    4. TNFβ
    5. IL-4
    1. Bind to cytokine receptor on target cells or directly to cytokine to inhibit its function
    2. Mimic the effect of specific cytokines
    3. Inhibit cytokine production
    4. Stimulate release of cytokines
    5. Destroy cytokine receptors on cell surfaces

    Author of lecture Therapeutic Blocking of Pathological Cytokines and Therapeutic Cytokines – Cell-Mediated Immunity

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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