In this lecture, we’re going to look at the
surface anatomy and osteology of the lower limb,
which will set you up to the remaining
lectures in this part of the course
which covers lower limb anatomy. So we’re going to,
first of all, start with the surface anatomy
and look at the various regions of the lower
limb, the gluteal, thigh, leg, and foot.
And then we’re going to look at the bones that
make up the lower limb.
We’ll look at the hip bone, the ischium, pubis, and ilium
and then we’ll look at the femur, the tibia,
fibula, the tarsal bones, the metatarsals, and phalanges.
We’ll look at a numerous bony landmarks on each of these individual bones
and then we’ll consider some movements
that are possible with the lower limb.
So you should be familiar with the general body
plan that we have and previously, we looked at
the bones and the muscles that form the upper
limb or the superior appendicular skeleton.
And now, we’re really associated with the lower
limb which we can see here. We’ve got the
lower limb forming by the thigh and the leg
which we’ll talk about. But what we can see
on the screen here are some surface features
of the lower limb, the inferior appendicular
skeleton. So we have the anterior surface
here and we have the posterior surface here.
So we can see the inferior appendicular skeleton
forms the lower limb, and it is specialized
for locomotion, for movement.
It’s also specialized to maintain balance, maintaining
posture, and supporting the body’s weight.
Unlike the upper limb, it contains a number
of specialized joints. It is attached to the
axial skeleton via the pelvic girdle. And we can see
on the screen on this anterior and posterior
view, we can see we have the gluteal region.
This is really only observed on the posterior
aspect here. We can imagine where the sacrum
would be and we have the gluteal fold separating
the inferior aspect of the gluteal region
from the posterior aspect of the thigh.
And here, we have a small little protrusion which is
the greater trochanter. You can see that on
the posterior surface here laterally, and also
laterally, here on this anterior surface.
And this is where we have the anterior region
of the thigh. We can see sartorius muscle
will be passing down in this direction, and
we can see it’s originating from the anterior
superior iliac spine. We can see the inguinal
ligament is passing down towards the
pubic tubercle. We can see we’ve got the impression
of the knee and the patella anteriorly in
this lower limb, and we can see where we have
the head of the fibula and the tibial tuberosity.
We can also see the fibula head protruding
laterally on this posterior view.
We can see the bulk of muscle on the posterior leg formed
by gastrocnemius and we can also appreciate
a very sharp anterior border of the tibia.
And then we pass down into the foot.
We go past both the medial and the lateral malleolus
which can be palpated. And then we move on
to the dorsum of the foot, and underneath,
we have the sole. So some regions and some
key surface landmarks. Now, the axial skeleton,
remember, is what supports the body, the core
of the body. And attached to the axial skeleton,
we have the appendicular skeleton, the superior
appendicular skeleton being for the upper
limb, and the inferior appendicular skeleton
being for the lower limb. We can see on the
skeleton here the inferior appendicular skeleton.
We have the femur, which articulates with
the hip bone via the head of the femur.
And we can see this is deviated medially towards
the midline. So we have this obliquely running
long bone, the femur. We can see it articulates
the knee joints with the tibia, which is
orientated vertically. And we have this running down
towards the ankle joint. Running anterior
to the femur, we have the patella which we can
see here and running lateral to the tibia,
we have the fibula. The fibula isn’t necessarily
involved in weight bearing, but the fibula
alongside the interosseous membrane joining
the two bones offers a large surface area
for muscle attachments. We then have a whole
series of tarsal bones. These are analogous to the carpal
bones in the wrist. And then we have metatarsals
just like we had metacarpals. Then finally,
the digits of the foot are formed by the phalanges.
So let’s move on to looking at some of the