various muscles. If we now move on to some venous
drainage, then there are two important blood vessels
that return venous blood to the heart from
the upper limb. These are known as the cephalic
and the basilic veins. And we can see these just
briefly here on this anterior view of a right
upper limb. We can see we've got the cephalic
vein here and we have got the basilic vein.
This diagram on the opposite side of this
picture here is indicating more deep veins
and we'll just cover those briefly. So, two important
veins are taking venous blood from the upper
limb back to the heart, the cephalic and the
basilic. Both of these veins originate from
the venous network which is located on the
dorsum of the hand. So this is the palmar surface
of the hand. On the dorsum which is the posterior
surface we have what's known as the venous network.
And this venous network gives rise to the cephalic
and to the basilic veins. We can see them
here a cephalic vein and we can see a basilic
vein running up. This will pass all the way
up to form the axillary vein and here we can
see the cephalic vein which will run all the
way up and pass into the axillary vein. These
ascend up the upper limb within the subcutaneous
tissue. So they runs superficial to the deep
fascia and both of these join up with the
axillary vein. We can see on this side of
the slide, this picture, the deep veins.
I am not going to talk about these much because we
can cover them throughout the course when we look
at the musculature. But the deep veins all located
deep to the deep fascia. So they are running
within the muscular compartments and they run
alongside the arteries of the upper limb.
So for example, an artery of the upper limb is
the brachial artery, so we have brachial veins.
An radial and ulnar arteries, so we have
radial and ulnar veins. And typically these veins
run as pairs or threes and they are very
small little channels that are running alongside
the arteries. Because these veins have valves
in, they used to contractile properties of
the arteries to propel the blood through the
venous system. But due to the presence of
valves, the blood can only pass in one direction
which is back to the heart. Due to these valves,
it can't pass distally. It only passes proximally
as it heads towards the heart. So just look at
the deep veins quite briefly. Here we can
see if we turn to the superficial veins again,
we have got the cephalic vein and we have got the
basilic vein. So on this diagram here, we can see
the hand in this extreme over here. We can
see the forearm in the middle and then we
can see the arm in this opposite extreme on the
screen. And what we can see in the hand region
is this dorsal network. We can see we have
this small lateral dorsal network here and
we have a more medial dorsal network here. But these
are all receiving veins coming from the digits.
The cephalic vein is formed from this lateral
dorsal network and its going to run up
the lateral aspects of the forearm. It ascends
the anterolateral aspect of the forearm,
so here we can see a forearm, the anterior surface
and here is the posterior surface. So here we have
got the lateral aspects, we can see the cephalic
vein running up in this direction and then
it is going to run up into the arm. And we can
pick it up again here. This is the forearm
here, this is the arm. So we can see the cephalic
vein is running up and then it runs up along
this side of the arm. You can see it is running
in and it is piercing this deltoid fascia.
So as I said, these veins are running superficial
to the deep fascia. But ultimately they have
to pierce the deep fascia to then pass into
and form the axillary vein. If we now turn to the basilic vein,
this emerges from the medial dorsal network,
so we can see it here coming from this
medial dorsal network, and here we’ve got the basilic vein.
This is going to ascend
the medial forearm and then enter into the medial aspect of
the arm. So here we can see it, just
running up here, we can see it coming
from the medial aspect of the basilic vein,
And then running up, pick it up again here, we see the basilic vein
running all the way up, and then it is passing all the way up into the arm.
Here again we can see it pierces the brachial fascia.
We can see its piercing
the brachial fascia now and it actually unites with the deep
brachial vein to form the axillary vein.
So it pierces the brachial fascia and emerges
with the deep brachial vein to form the axillary vein.
So the brachial vein has run alongside
the brachial artery. Coming from deep,
it receives the basilic vein,
And these two veins uniting, form the axillary vein. The
axillary vein then runs up the axilla where it receives the cephalic vein
and then it becomes the subclavian, which passes back
to the heart. So we can see we’ve got this
superficial cutaneous venous drainage,
primarily from the cephalic vein and from the basilic vein.
At the elbow joint there is a very
important communication between
the cephalic vein and the basilic vein. And this little
communication here, it lies directly anterior
to the elbow joint, and its known as the medial
cubital vein. This runs across, joining
the cephalic and the basilic vein. And this is an
important location for venupuncture if blood
is to be removed from the venous system.
A communication anterior to the elbow,
that connects the cephalic vein to the basilic vein,
a very important communication.
So now let’s move on to cutaneous
innervation. Now you’re all aware