Strength and Concentration – Acid-Base Reactions

by Adam Le Gresley, PhD

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    The lecture Strength and Concentration – Acid-Base Reactions by Adam Le Gresley, PhD is from the course Ionic Chemistry.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. C2H2O4
    2. HClO4
    3. HI
    4. H2SO4
    5. HBr
    1. Benzoic acid is a strong acid which gets fully ionized in a solvent at room temperature.
    2. Benzoic acid, a weak organic acid, dissociates incompletely to H+ and C6H5CO2- ions.
    3. Benzoic acid has smaller Ka than the sulfuric acid.
    4. C6H5COOH has higher pKa value than the nitric acid.
    5. The pKa values for benzoic acid in water and DMSO at 25°C are 4.2 and 11.1, respectively.
    1. An acidity constant gives a qualitative measure of an acidic reaction at a particular temperature.
    2. An acidity constant gives a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in the solution.
    3. pKa = - log Ka
    4. The value of acidity constant gives a measure of the extent of dissociation of acids.
    5. The structural factors have a pronounced effect on the value of acidity constant.
    1. ...of a chemical reaction in a closed system is a state when the rate of a forward reaction equals to the rate of backward reaction with no changes in the concentrations of reactants and products.
    2. …represents a continuous variation in the reactant concentration during an irreversible reaction.
    3. …represents a regular shift in the product concentration during an irreversible reaction.
    4. …exists when the system is in an ever-changing state.
    5. …represents a state of the system when the rate of a forward reaction more than the rate of backward reaction.
    1. ...with an alteration in the concentrations of products or reactants, temperature and pressure of the system.
    2. …with an addition of a hydrolytic enzyme to the system.
    3. …with an addition of a ligase enzyme to the system.
    4. …with an addition of a metal catalyst to the system.
    5. …with an addition of a nanomaterial-based catalyst to the system.
    1. …the given acid is strong and dissociates into ions easily.
    2. …the given acid is weak and dissociates into ions with ease.
    3. …the given acid is strong and does not dissociate into ions with ease.
    4. …the given acid is weak and partially dissociate into ions.
    5. …the given acid is weak and does not dissociate into ions even at elevated temperatures.
    1. K = {[H+] × [C3H7COO-]} / [C3H7COOH]
    2. K = {[H+] × [C3H7COOH]} / [C3H7COO-]
    3. K = [H+] / {[C3H7COOH] × [C3H7COO-]}
    4. K = {[C3H7COOH] × [C3H7COO-]} / [H+]
    5. K = [C3H7COOH] / {[H+] × [C3H7COO-]}
    1. The thermodynamics is dependent on the reaction mechanism; whereas the kinetics of a chemical reaction independent of the reaction mechanism.
    2. The thermodynamics pertain to the equilibrium, whereas kinetics relates to the rate of the reaction.
    3. The thermodynamics remains unaffected by the presence of catalysts; on the other hand, the addition of catalysts alters the kinetic of the reaction system.
    4. The thermodynamics is independent of the reaction mechanism; whereas the kinetics of a chemical reaction depends upon the reaction mechanism.
    5. The thermodynamics deals with equilibrium constant (K), while kinetics covers the rate constant (k).
    1. Carboxylic acids are stronger acids than the mineral acids like HCl or HNO3.
    2. Weak acids dissociate to a small extent in an aqueous solution.
    3. Due to the generation of small amounts of H+ during dissociation, the weak acids possess less acidic character than H2SO4.
    4. Ethanoic acid possesses a low acidity constant (Ka = 1.8 × 10-5).
    5. Oxalic acid gives a less stable conjugate base, hence undergoes partial dissociation.
    1. The larger the size of an electronegative atom, lesser will be the acidic strength of the molecule.
    2. The acidity increase with an increase in positive charge on an atom.
    3. The electronegativity of an atom or conjugate base directly reflects the acidic character of a molecule.
    4. The delocalization of negative charge through delocalization contributes to the acidic trait of an acid.
    5. Inductive effect of electronegative atoms enhances the acidity of acids through stabilization of the conjugate base by withdrawing electrons towards themselves.
    1. The chlorine helps in stabilization of conjugate base by causing the delocalization of electron density because it pulls the electrons towards itself away from the carboxylate group via electron withdrawing inductive effect.
    2. The chlorine atom destabilizes the conjugate base through electron releasing inductive effect.
    3. The chlorine atom helps in concentrating the electron density on the carboxylate group.
    4. The chlorine atom contributes to delocalizing resonance effect in acetic acid derivatives.
    5. The chlorine atoms possess pKa value elevating effect.

    Author of lecture Strength and Concentration – Acid-Base Reactions

     Adam Le Gresley, PhD

    Adam Le Gresley, PhD

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