Signal Amplification & Dissemination

by Thad Wilson, PhD

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    What are the steps in getting that signal once it’s bound to the ligand to do something useful or do a physiological response? We have a number of steps in this signaling process. We’re going to break them into six different steps. The first step is recognition. You need to make sure that the ligand binds to the receptor. So recognition is not only the first step here, but it is so important if you don’t have this response, you’re not going to get any of the other steps. What is that recognition? The ligand has a specific, usually, confirmation. It has a certain charge. It has a certain way in which it’s going to bind in a particular receptor binding pocket. Oftentimes, it is very specific to the ligand itself or class of ligands. And so, they might have to be one type or a family to bind to a particular receptor. We oftentimes talk about that in terms of its affinity for a receptor. Certain ligands have high affinities and other ligands have lower affinities. It’s important to understand that reaction to know what recognition is going to look like. Not only do you have to have the right ligand and the right receptor, you’re going to have to move that information from the cell surface into the cell. How do you do that? That’s in a stage that we oftentimes call transduction. So in a G protein-coupled receptor, using this as an example, you might activate a G protein to help transduce that signal into something more useful. So it is the receptor causing the change in either the proteins around it or activating a molecule around it to start that response. Transmission is getting that transduced signal to the right spot. So it might involve activating...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Signal Amplification & Dissemination by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Membrane Physiology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. High affinity
    2. High recognition
    3. High promiscuity
    4. High connectivity
    5. High association
    1. The receptor ‘recognizes’ the ligand’s specific conformation and specifically binds to it
    2. The ligand recognizes the receptor
    3. The cell recognizes the ligand
    4. The nucleus recognizes the ligand
    5. There is no specific conformational change in the receptor
    1. The bound receptor to the ligand causes a change in the receptor’s protein around it and starts a response
    2. The ligand changes its configuration
    3. The cell membrane changes its lipid configuration
    4. The ligand irreversibly binds to the receptor
    5. The ligand-receptor complex move into the cytosol
    1. Getting that transduced signal to the right target thus signaling a particular activation
    2. Transferring the signal from the ligand to the receptor
    3. The bound receptor to the ligand causes a change in the receptor’s protein around it and starts a response
    4. The cell recognizes the ligand
    5. Transducing the signal from the ligand to the receptor
    1. ...Interesting effects that alter the function of the cell
    2. ...Important changes in the ligand
    3. ...Irreversible changes in the receptor
    4. ...Permanent changes in the cell
    5. ...Permanent changes in the nucleus
    1. Remove the ligand or block the cascade of effects at same point
    2. Internalize the ligand-receptor complex
    3. Prevent removal of the ligand thus preventing further ligand-receptor contact
    4. Breakdown of the receptor
    5. Decrease the energy available to the receptor
    1. A muscarinic receptor
    2. A nicotinic receptor
    3. An adrenergic receptor
    4. A dopaminergic receptor
    5. A glutaminergic receptor
    1. G protein receptor
    2. Enzyme-linked receptor
    3. An ion-gated receptor
    4. A voltage receptor
    5. An ATP-gated receptor
    1. They transmit a signal to the potassium channel
    2. They directly affect the calcium channel
    3. They transmit a signal to the hydrogen channel
    4. They transmit a signal to the chloride channel
    5. They directly decrease influx of sodium into the cell
    1. They cause potassium to leave the cell
    2. They cause potassium to enter the cell
    3. They cause sodium to leave the cell
    4. They cause calcium to enter the cell
    5. They cause chloride to leave the cell
    1. Hyperpolarization
    2. Depolarization
    3. Prolongation of baseline voltage
    4. Tetany
    5. Relaxation
    1. Via the breaking down of Ach by local acetylcholinesterase
    2. Via discontinuation of delivery of Ach across the synaptic cleft
    3. Via re-uptake of Ach into the postsynaptic nerve
    4. Via the action of blood acetylcholinesterase
    5. Via removal of intact Ach from the receptor

    Author of lecture Signal Amplification & Dissemination

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD

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