Okay. So once you have
something stored in memory,
you need to access that memory,
so we need to retrieve it.
So retrieval is the process of finding
information that was once stored in our memory.
That can be a fairly
convoluted process, right?
So how do we actually do that?
So there’s a couple of ways
that we’ve categorized here
and one is called free recalls.
This is retrieval of items
with no constraints.
The example is just list recall, so
I’m asking you to remember or just --
no one’s even prompting you and
you’re just listing things.
I’m going to list, you know,
five friends that I have
and I’m just going to start
saying that, versus cued recall,
where items are associated with
cues which assist in the recall
So I can say things like, you know,
name five of your friends.
And you’re -- you’ve been cued to recall something
and then you’re going in and
getting, you know, five cities
and you’re naming five cities.
Recognition is identifying specific
information for a set of information,
for example a multiple
So, say, you have a question
and there’s an A, B, and C.
I’m actually giving you
making you go in to access that.
So you have to recognize what are the
areas of my memory that I need to access,
get that information, and then when you’re
looking at the multiple choice answers,
you’re able to determine, you know,
do I know the answer to that?
I’m going to go check the files in
my long-term memory, access it,
and then answer the question.
Okay? So, three types of recall.
Now, relearning is when you’ve
actually learnt something
and then you have lost it,
so, learning information that was
once in memory and forgotten.
So I had said to you
just because it’s in long-term memory it
doesn’t mean it’s there indefinitely,
you can lose things.
the positive is once you have forgotten
something, you can relearn it
and that reacquisition is much
faster than learning it the --
when you were learning
it the first time.
And there’s another phenomenon that we’re
going to talk about in a little bit.
It refers to, once you’ve relearned
something, what is the timeframe there?
So how long does it take to
sort of forget something
and how does the relearning
expedite that process?
Now, retrieval cues, considering
the network theory of memory,
priming nodes and their association
aids in recall, right?
So in the examples that we just talked
about with beer or the color of fruit,
we know that network is really,
really helping priming things.
So if I have primed you, your
ability to retrieve improves.
Contextual cues such as
sounds and smell also
present during the encoding
help with retrieval.
So again, I think we all know
scenarios where you smell something
and it helps with
retrieving that memory.
You can say, you know, “I’ve smelled
that smell before, that dish.
What is that dish? That dish?”
And then you smell it and
you’re like, “Oh, that’s right.
That was that amazing soup that we had
when we were in the south of France,”
and you make that connection because
as you’re encoding information,
if you have sound information,
and that’s encoded and
tied in with the memory,
it’s the same idea as of a network,
except instead of just being words,
you can have smells and sounds
that help activate the network.
Certain smells and sounds will
take you to certain places,
certain smell and sounds will
help you remember certain things.
Emotion, emotions also can serve as
something to assist in retrieving
and can be in itself
a retrieval cue.
So there’s something called
and it shows that what is
recalled can be state-dependent.
So if you are in a very,
very happy, happy state
and you’re acquiring some information,
if you’re in a happy state again,
you’ll tend to recall that type of
information. Same if when you’re sad.
You know, when you’re really sad,
you remember all the bad times
and you’re like so upset and -- and you --
you kind of feed forward on all that --
all that energy, sort of all
that memory based on that mood.
Another set of experiments kind
of looked at memory recall
when you’re actually
under the influence.
So if you carry this state-dependent
learning or memory further,
people have found,
some researchers found
that after you’ve been
drinking for example,
you start to recall
and remember things
that you acquired when
in that similar state.
So think of, you know, drinking with
family and friends around Christmas time.
And when you’re in that
state, you start to recall,
“Oh, do you remember last Christmas
when we’re sitting around the table
and we were drinking? We were talking about
all the silly gifts that we’ve received,”
or when you’re at a sporting event and
you’re drinking and enjoying the game.
The dialogue, the conversations,
the memories that come up
are around that same state.
Even the new memories that
you’re acquiring and encoding
tend to be recalled easier when
you’re in that same state.
So, what you learn when you’ve been
drinking, what you learn when you’re upset,
what you learn when you’re sad, is recalled
easier when you’re in that same state.
So you remember the good times,
you remember the bad times
when you’re in that state.