Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women, affecting nearly 5%‒10% of women in the age group. Characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation leading to oligomenorrhea (or amenorrhea), and metabolic dysfunction, PCOS increases a woman’s risk for infertility, endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma, and cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood but thought to have a multifactorial genetic basis causing altered pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), as well as increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), androgens, estrogen, and insulin: The result is chronic anovulation and hirsutism, which define the condition. Diagnosis is one of exclusion; therefore, other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding and hirsutism must be ruled out. Management includes attempting to restore normal ovulation through weight loss, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), and fertility assistance.