Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

by Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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    00:00 That brings us to the idea that things could be a little bit different in a eukaryotic cell versus a prokaryotic cell because you will recall that eukaryotes have a membrane bound nucleus whereas prokaryotes do not.

    00:17 Looking at a bacterial cell, we can see that all of this stuff happens, transcription and translation happen in the cytosol, in one area. The DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA. That messenger RNA is then directly translated by ribosomes into a polypeptide chain. Whereas when we look at the process in a eukaryotic cell, we have our nucleus that is membrane bound and we will see that transcription happens where the DNA is inside the nucleus. In transcription, we make a pre-messenger RNA and then that pre-messenger RNA is modified in post transcriptional processing to become a mature messenger RNA. That mature messenger RNA can then exit the nucleus through one of those little nuclear pores and make its way into the cytoplasm where ribosomes can grab it and translate it into a polypeptide chain. A little bit different, but essentially the same we'll have some more steps to look at when we examine eukaryotic transcription and the modification in RNA processing to make it ready to go out into the cytosol.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes by Georgina Cornwall, PhD is from the course Gene Expression.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Inside the nucleus
    2. On the surface of the nuclear membrane.
    3. On ribosomes
    4. In the cytosol

    Author of lecture Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

     Georgina Cornwall, PhD

    Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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    Very clear explanation
    By Seoyoung J. on 24. June 2020 for Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

    This lecture clearly points out the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in protein synthesis. It would be helpful for those who wish to briefly know how proteins are formed in each type of cell.