Diagnosis – Primary Immunodeficiency

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    So very typically in an infant with primary immunodeficiency, the child will be getting recurrent infections that’ll be quite severe. Of course all children get infections but usually one or two days later they’re fit and well and they’re running around again, perfectly healthy. But in children with primary immunodeficiencies, they will not recover very well from these infections and the parents maybe will be a bit concerned and they’ll take them along to the doctor’s clinic and eventually they may get investigated if primary immunodeficiency is suspected. And there are a number of different tests that can be carried out to try and help in the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency. For example, the number of cells of the immune system can be counted. One can look for the number of CD3+ lymphocytes. CD3 is a molecule that’s found on the surface of all T-cells, so this will tell you whether there is a T-cell deficiency or not. Then one can look a little bit deeper and look at individual subsets of T-cells, for example look at the number of CD4+ cells, the number of CD8+ cells. One can also assess the function of cells in vitro. For example, you can stimulate T-cells with a mitogenic substance called phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or one can stimulate with specific antigens, one can look for the production of cytokines such as interleukin-2 in vitro in the laboratory. One can also look at the function of the immune system within the individual child using delayed hypersensitivity reactions to purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Regarding investigation of B-cell primary immunodeficiencies, again one can enumerate cells. There are various molecules that are pretty much restricted to being expressed on B-cells but not other cells of the immune response. CD20 is a good example of that....

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Diagnosis – Primary Immunodeficiency by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Immunodeficiency and Immune Deficiency Diseases.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Nitroblue tetrazolium
    2. Phytohemagglutinin
    3. Delayed hypersensitivity
    4. Isohemagglutinins
    5. Enumeration of neutrophils
    1. Measuring the delayed hypersensitivity reaction to purified protein derivative of M. tuberculosis
    2. Hemolysis assay
    3. Neutrophil count
    4. PHA stimulation or antigen specific stimulation
    5. Antibody levels of isohemagglutinins
    1. Anti-M. tuberculosis
    2. Anti-E. coli antibodies
    3. Anti- tetanus antibodies
    4. Isohemogglutinins
    5. Anti-diphtheria toxins

    Author of lecture Diagnosis – Primary Immunodeficiency

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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