Trematocides (Praziquantel) and Cestodicides (Niclosamide) – Anthelmintic Drugs

by Pravin Shukle, MD

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    00:00 Let's move on to the trematodes.

    00:03 So the trematodicidal agents are -- the prototypical one is praziquantel.

    00:09 It increases the membrane permeability to calcium of the organism.

    00:14 Which results in a marked contraction of the trematode and then paralysis.

    00:19 It's used in trematode and cestode infections.

    00:23 And it is the drug of choice in schisotosomiasis.

    00:27 It's an alternative to albendazole in systemic cysticercosis or the pork tapeworm.

    00:34 And it is contraindicated in ocular cysticercosis.

    00:39 So ocular cysticercosis, you must treat with albendazole.

    00:43 So here's an example of ocular cysticercosis or pork tapeworm.

    00:49 I'm going to say pork tapeworm because it's easier to say.

    00:51 So I'm going to say it again and again.

    00:53 Pork tapeworm, ocular treat with albendazole.

    00:57 Systemic you can use praziquantel.

    01:02 In terms of the mechanism of action of praziquantel, it increases the membrane permeability to calcium as well.

    01:08 And it causes the mark contraction and then paralysis of the agent.

    01:12 Toxicity includes headache, dizziness and drowsiness.

    01:16 Let's move on to the cestodes.

    01:19 So the cestodicidal agents are quite very -- I think I'll talk quickly about niclosamide.

    01:28 So niclosamide is interesting because it works differently then the other agents.

    01:33 It uncouples the oxidative phosphorylation.

    01:37 This cause paralysis of the organisms.

    01:40 And it activates ATPases in the tapeworm.

    01:43 It is an alternative drug in beef, pork and fish tapeworms.

    01:47 But is not useful in systemic cysticercosis or pork tapeworm cysts.

    01:53 Now here is an image of cystic cysticercosis.

    02:00 You can see the cysts present in the liver on the CT scan.

    02:03 And it is pointed out to you with a white arrow.

    02:07 The ova and larva are not killed by niclosamide.

    02:12 Use albendazole in the cyst form of pork tapeworm.

    02:19 In terms of the toxicity of niclosamide, gastrointestinal distress, headache, rash and fever.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Trematocides (Praziquantel) and Cestodicides (Niclosamide) – Anthelmintic Drugs by Pravin Shukle, MD is from the course Antimicrobial Pharmacology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Trematocides
    • Cestodicides

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Increases membrane permeability to calcium
    2. Increases membrane permeability to sodium ions
    3. Increases permeability to potassium ions
    4. Activates ATPase in worms
    5. Uncouples oxidative phosphorylation
    1. Uncouples oxidative phosphorylation
    2. Deactivates ATPase
    3. Increases calcium influx into the cell
    4. Increases calcium efflux from the cell
    5. Generates reactive oxygen species

    Author of lecture Trematocides (Praziquantel) and Cestodicides (Niclosamide) – Anthelmintic Drugs

     Pravin Shukle, MD

    Pravin Shukle, MD

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