Pediatric Diarrhea

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Our topic now, we'll move to pediatric diarrhea. Obviously the definition will be increased stool output, and you're definitely worried about in a child of losing electrolytes. Maybe acute or chronic. Etiology maybe infection or perhaps malabsorption. We'll talk about differentials in a little bit. Mechanism may be osmotic. Stool volume depends on the diet and decreases with fasting. By osmotic, we mean that there is not enough absorption, therefore, creating an osmotic environment in the intestine, therefore, pulling in water resulting in diarrhea. Or perhaps it might the secretory type. So two different types of diarrhea that may be seen in the pediatric population. In secretory, the stool volume is increased and does not vary with diet. That, you want to pay attention to. In osmotic, the less that the child eats, there's less of a chance of stool output being increased. If it's secretory, then there is increased – let's say, it's something like a Vibrio cholera infection, a secretory type of diarrhea, regardless as to how much consumption by the child of food, it's not going to change the amount of stool volume. That will continue to be persistent. You pay attention to that, please. Let us now go into differentials and etiologies. Viral, extremely common. Of all the viral, rotavirus is the most common if you remember from microbiology, especially during winter months up in the north. This is when the children are playing and they really don’t play outside too much and maybe perhaps the parents are dropping their children off in day care centers, and because of lack of exposure to the outside world, they're kind of closed in these closed environments. It's easy, really easy for infections to be taking place over and over and over again. You'll see this during the winter...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Pediatric Diarrhea by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Pediatric GI Pathology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Rota virus
    2. Norwalk virus
    3. Carona virus
    4. E. Coli
    5. Adeno virus
    1. Feco-oral route
    2. Exposure to aerosols
    3. Exposure to contaminated food
    4. Exposure to new food diet
    5. Passes through saliva
    1. Nursery
    2. Playing in fresh water stream
    3. Keeping reptiles as pets
    4. Consumption of contaminated eggs
    5. Exposure to contaminated milk
    1. Salmonella
    2. Shigella
    3. Campylobacter jejuni
    4. Rota virus
    5. Vibrio cholera
    1. Antibiotics
    2. Antivirals
    3. Antituberculous
    4. Anti fungal
    5. Antiparasitic
    1. Secretory diarrhea is always infectious.
    2. In Osmotic diarrhea, the stool volume increases by absorption of more water into the bowel.
    3. Osmotic diarrhea decreases when fasting is performed.
    4. In secretory diarrhea, the stool volume does not depend on diet
    5. In secretory diarrhea, the stool volume increases due to the production of mucus.
    1. Metronidazole
    2. Vancomycin
    3. Co-trimoxazole
    4. Ampicillin
    5. Supportive therapy
    1. Provide the complete course of vancomycin.
    2. Repeat complete course of metronidazole.
    3. Give a short course of vancomycin.
    4. Give alternate antibiotic of amoxicillin.
    5. It's self-limiting and does not require further treatment.

    Author of lecture Pediatric Diarrhea

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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