Now to summarize all this together we have
the glucagon epinephrine pathway
compared to the insulin pathway.
And you can see that glucagon epinephrine is favoring
the production of glucose through
gluconeogenesis, through glycogen breakdown
and also the production of
energy through fat breakdown.
It's inhibiting the use of glucose which
is glycolysis and glycogen synthesis,
and it's inhibiting the storage a fat.
Insulin is favoring the opposite
things. Insulin is favoring
the use of glucose in glycolysis
and glycogen synthesis,
and it's favoring the synthesis of fat.
On the other hand, it is inhibiting
gluconeogenesis and glycogen breakdown
and it's inhibiting fat breakdown as well.
Now the pathway for glucagon and epinephrine
is activated by protein kinase A
and the kinase cascade, as
we have seen numerous times.
The insulin pathway is being activated
by phosphoprotein phosphatase
and the dephosphorylating
enzymes that we have seen.
Now we have gone through a fairly detail description here
of the regulatory pathways involved
in controlling many metabolic processes in the cell.
But I hope what you have taken
away in this scheme is that there is
in fact a great coordination of these events
such as the cell is operating as efficiently
as it can just like that well oiled machine.