in patients presenting with major hemoptysis.
So, to summarize the discussion of airways
disease in this third lecture. Upper airways
obstruction is uncommon but can be life threatening
and it’s often misdiagnosed as asthma or COPD.
Flow volume loops. The CT scan and bronchoscopy
can identify patients with upper airways obstructions,
but you need to think about doing those tests,
you need to consider those diagnosis. Bronchiectasis
is common and has multiple different causes,
and the main problem is that the patients
get recurrent infections and eventually if
they get uncontrolled recurrent infections that
will lead to progressive airways obstruction
and potentially respiratory failure and death.
So controlling infections is the main aim
in these patients to prevent lung function
loss over time. Cystic fibrosis is a specific
cause of bronchiectasis an inherited the defect
of the CFTR gene, and that causes a very severe
bronchiectasis which almost invariably will
progress to severe airways obstruction but
is associated with multiple other problems
such as malabsorbtion, diabetes, infertility
and obstruction. Lastly, we've discussed minor
hemoptysis which is, the main problem there
is whether the patient is maybe having lung
cancer or not. And major hemoptysis which
is a significant life threatening emergency
that requires aggressive treatment. Thank you for listening.