Opportunistic Infections: Learning Outcomes

by Vincent Racaniello, PhD

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    00:00 So after listening to our talk about opportunistic fungal infections, you should be able to name some of the fungi that cause these infections. And you should be familiar with both the pathogenesis and the epidemiology of candidiasis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis and pneumocystosis. And maybe you're a little afraid to go walking in the woods now, for fear that you might inhale some spores, but really don't be, because the spores are everywhere. And finally you should know which drugs can be used to treat opportunistic fungal infections. Thanks for listening and we do have one additional fungal lecture for you to listen to.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Opportunistic Infections: Learning Outcomes by Vincent Racaniello, PhD is from the course Fungi.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. A patient with a history of hypertension
    2. A patient with a central intravenous catheter
    3. A patient consistently using broad-spectrum antibiotics
    4. A patient with kidney failure on dialysis
    5. A patient who has undergone an organ transplant and is on immunosuppressive drugs
    1. ...a white coating of thick cells on the mucosal surfaces of the mouth or the reproductive organs
    2. ...jaundice of the eyes and skin
    3. ...fever, chest pain, cough and shortness of breath or dyspnea
    4. ...symptoms of pneumonia
    5. ...destruction of the blood vessel as a result of this mycelial growth
    1. It can infect the lungs, leading to COPD
    2. It can infect the brain, leading to meningitis
    3. It can infect the eye, leading to chorioretinitis
    4. It can cause hepatosplenic abscesses
    5. It can cause vertebral osteomyelitis
    1. By inhaling the spores formed by the fungus
    2. From person-to-person via the fecal-oral route
    3. By inhalation of aerosolized spores from coughing or sneezing
    4. By sexual transmission
    5. Through an open wound
    1. Aspergillus is part of the normal gut flora
    2. We can take biopsies of various tissues to document invasion and we can see the typical cellular forms or the hyphal forms of Aspergillus
    3. It can be treated with voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin
    4. Spores are inhaled initially and when they go into the lungs, they germinate and start to grow as hyphae
    5. Inhalation of spores can lead to severe disease in the immunosuppressed or compromised
    1. Do a lumbar puncture and look at the CSF, the cerebrospinal fluid, for budding yeasts
    2. SIlver-stained sputum samples from the lung
    3. Use sputum samples from the lung and stain them with antibodies directed against the antigen of the fungus
    4. PCR on the bronchoalveolar lavage
    5. A biopsy taken to discover the nucleic acid of the organism
    1. Aspergillus; Itraconazole
    2. Candida and Aspergillus; Fluconazole
    3. Candida and Cryptococcus; Voriconazole
    4. Aspergillus; Nystatin
    5. Cryptococcus and Candida; Nystatin
    1. Epidermophyton
    2. Candidiasis
    3. Cryptococcosis
    4. Aspergillosis 
    5. Pneumocystosis

    Author of lecture Opportunistic Infections: Learning Outcomes

     Vincent Racaniello, PhD

    Vincent Racaniello, PhD

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