Alright let's take a look at observational learning.
Observational learning is also known as
social learning or vicarious learning.
You should definitely know the later term vicarious learning.
Coz’ that’s the most probably come up.
Modeling is when an observer sees a behavior
being performed by another and imitates it.
And it’s unique because the degree
of modeling is actually shaped
by the success of the behavior
and the type of reinforcement.
If the behavior is found upon
and they get punish in some way,
they might not model
as much as supposed to.
If they see a behavior and that
behavior is reinforced positively,
then they will continue that behavior.
Modeling will even occur if the outcome of
the behavior is actually unknown.
So, there’s lot of different factors controlling,
whether or not you model.
Now, there’s really cool experiments that were done
quite some time ago by Albert Bandura.
And these look at the impact
of modeling on behavior.
So fairly simplistic model by
Today’s standards in terms of experimentation.
But the points that use
was able to determine were really interesting.
So what he did was he showed little children
a video looking at serve adult violent theme.
So movie was rather was fighting or they even
would watch videos of their parents arguing
or they would actually watch parents arguing.
And these different scenarios, the point is
they engage watching something shows violent behavior.
And then, they were allowed to go in a room and play.
In there, they have different toys.
They have this Bobo doll.
I think you may have seen this before is that
toy you’ve blow up and you punch it in the face.
And it comes were bouncing back
for more of the bidding.
And so they had this toy and the potential toy’s
that they could play with.
And the kids that were playing with the Bobo doll,
got pretty violent with our poor little
friend Bobo after watching,
eithre their parents fighting or
violent videos with violent content.
And so, they model that behavior
of watching their parents arguing,
and they went out, and they went in.
They emulated this behavior.
And in certain situations, when they
look at even more fine tunely
in these scenarios where a perceived weapon was used,
the children actually took a little plastic camera
and also were playing in that behavior.
So essentially, they were modeling what they saw.
Now, there’s another thing that we want to consider, another
aspect in terms of looking on observational learning
and thats physiological concept,
something we see in biology.
And that’s the presence of these things
called mirror neurons.
And they’re found in several brain regions
including the premotor cortex,
the primary somatosensory cortex
and the inferior parietal cortex.
So in all of these structures,
you have these mirror neurons.
And what they actually do is neurons fire
when a task is performed
and/or when that same task is observed.
So they’re actually firing when they’re not
are actually doing the tasks.
But they’re watching the task.
And is believed that these dual firing of actually
observing the task or doing the task herself
reinforces that behavior.
Observational learning actually
happening biologically speaking.
So this process of mirror neurons firing
and the process of actual modeling
is thought to help understand the action of others
and help us learn through imitation.
So as we imitate, it’s strengthen with
the firing of these mirror neurons.
So mirror neurons also might be involve with helping
us understand vicarious emotions such as empathy.
And that empathy revolves run
as seeing somebody in need or crying or hurt.
And we tend to feel that same emotion.
If they are crying, we might cry.
And if they’re laughing, we tend to smile and laugh
as well so that empathetic emotion that were displaying
might be actually a vicarious emotion run through this
copying or imitation or firing of the mirror neurons.
Despite modeling and imitating, we still see
individual differences in learning and behavior.
So, it’s not that these mirror neurons or as modeling
is going to allow as to carbon copy exactly what we see.
It’s definitely one component that might initiate the process
but they’re other factors that are involved.
So, we also know that, personality differences
and psychological disorders
can impact our ability to learn
So these are all aspects are supporting the idea
that isn’t just copying and imitating.
It’s definitely something that allows
to initiate the process.
So I think of young children
watching their parents.
So if young children watch their parents,
preparing dinner, cut a meal
or acting a certain way or overtly nice all the time
or they are actually quite hostile
or how they engage with others.
They would initiate by perhaps modeling
that behavior but every child we all know
is not identical in terms of
behavior to their parents.
So part of it might be initiated through
observational learning and modeling
but ultimately, their personal and
individual differences will input that.
So we say that cognition and environment
can have a direct impact in our ability to learn.
So cognitively speaking,
how are you?
And what environment are you placed in?
Then this will shape your ability to learn
and will also contribute to the modeling process.
Now, I put forward this question,
you know if you watch a horror movie
do you want becoming a killer?
Well the answer is no.
Coz’ you’re not gonna automatically model what you saw,
and go out and kill somebody.
This is where cognition and environment,
they take a role.
An individual understanding of what
you’re watching. Right.
So, do violent games make kids
That’s another question I put for.
And this is a constant debate
that individuals have.
And in terms of understanding personality,
and behavior and social norms,
I would say the general consense right now is that
video games don’t make somebody kill somebody else.
So video games might not exclusively
make you violent
but we have seen that video games
have further personality traits
in behaviors leaning towards the
So more violent tendencies are seen
when children then are playing,
you know, more and more video games.
So if you think of 20, 30, 40 years ago,
or video games didn’t really exist
in the fashion that they do today, there’s a
lot more one on one personal engagement
with playing on the social setting
that is been removed.
Some of the violence that we see
aligns with the type of video games
and the individuals are playing at least
little kids are playing.
So one on one combat games or games
or let’s say a third person narrative
you’re walking through a maze
with a gun trying to kill the bad guy,
this type of mentality and these types of games
we can see some analogies
to what we’re saying in terms of violence.