Neural Signaling Molecules – Gastrointestinal System

by Thad Wilson, PhD

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    00:01 So now, let’s talk through all these different neural signalling molecules.

    00:04 And it usually helps to set these up as tables.

    00:07 And this is one thing that you’ll want start lining through so you can make sure you understand which neurotransmitter does what particular function.

    00:17 The first one is acetylcholine.

    00:19 This is released by the parasympathetic nervous system.

    00:22 And its primary functions are increasing motility, increasing secretion, and increasing blood flow.

    00:29 ATP is released by the sympathetic nervous system, causing decreases in blood flow.

    00:35 Calcitonin gene-related peptide is released by afferents.

    00:39 So these are not from the sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves, but from sensory nerves that release calcitonin gene-related peptide to increase blood flow.

    00:48 The next class are enkephalins and enkephalins are released by the enteric nervous system.

    00:55 So this the local control and these help to constrict sphincters.

    01:00 And what this does is you constrict a sphincter, you prevent the food stuff from moving from one area of the GI system to the next.

    01:08 A great example of this is the pyloric sphincter, which is located in between the stomach and the duodenum of the small of the intestine.

    01:16 If you have it constricted, you’ll have less food stuff going from the stomach into the small intestine.

    01:23 Finally, we have gastric releasing peptide and why this is so important is it’s released by both the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system and this increases gastrin secretion.

    01:34 And remember gastrin secretion is important for increasing hydrogen ions.

    01:41 The other last set of neural signalling molecules we have are norpinephrine released by the sympathetic nervous system.

    01:48 This decreases motility, decreases secretion, and decreases blood flow.

    01:55 Neuropeptide Y, also decreases motility.

    01:58 Substance P is released by sensory afferents primarily, but sometimes as well by the parasympathetic nervous system.

    02:05 And that causes increases in blood flow.

    02:10 And finally, we have vasoactive intestinal peptide and that increases both motility and blood flow.

    02:18 So these are all the different neural signalling molecules.

    02:22 You will want to identify both where they come from and what function they have.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Neural Signaling Molecules – Gastrointestinal System by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Gastrointestinal Physiology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Blood vessel
    2. Smooth muscle
    3. Glands
    4. Vagus nerve
    5. Spinal nerves
    1. Sensory nerve afferent
    2. Central nervous system
    3. Vagus nerve
    4. Glandular cells
    5. Blood vessels

    Author of lecture Neural Signaling Molecules – Gastrointestinal System

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD

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