Insulin: Metabolic Effects and Counterregulatory Hormones

by Thad Wilson, PhD

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    00:00 Insulin counter-regulatory hormones.

    00:05 Counter-regulatory hormones now that's a mouthful isn't it.

    00:09 Think about a counter-regulatory hormone as being the opposite of effect of what happens with insulin.

    00:16 Though insulin does one thing if the opposite thing happens that's kind a regulatory.

    00:22 So catecholamine is one of those items that can cause counter-regulatory response with insulin.

    00:29 What are your catecholamines? Epinephrine, norepinephrine.

    00:33 This causes glycogenolysis.

    00:35 So this is the breakdown of glycogen which is the opposite of what insulin does.

    00:39 Insulin causes gluconeogenesis which is making new glycogen.

    00:41 Catecholamines also cause the lipolysis.

    00:47 So lipolysis and increase in plasma lactate these are the opposite of what insulin would do.

    00:56 If we look at our glucocorticoids -- and remember one is cortisol.

    01:02 Cortisol causes effects in which you get breakdown of protein in muscle, in the liver cell, it mobilizes free fatty acids from adipose tissue.

    01:14 These are all opposite effects.

    01:17 They are catabolic effects while insulin does anabolic effects.

    01:24 The other thing that glucocorticoids do is cause gluconeogenesis rather than glycolysis.

    01:29 Growth hormones also causes glypolysis, gluconeogenesis, and it decreases glucose uptake by muscle cells or myocytes.

    01:42 Those again are all things that will go in opposition to what insulin is trying to do.

    01:49 So when you think about, you have to think about what is the blood glucose level, what are all those things that are stimulating it.

    01:57 But then you also have to account for what are all the different hormones working against it.

    02:04 Like catecholamines, glucocorticoids and growth hormone.

    02:09 If you can maintain blood glucose within this level, of about 60 to 100 milligrams, you can have an optimal delivery of glucose to the brain.

    02:22 This is helpful in times of trying to stave off hypoglycemia.

    02:26 And maybe we've all experience this one time or another, when you've been really light headed because you haven't eaten enough glucose.

    02:34 Hyperglycemia is major health issue.

    02:36 Specially if it' chronic hyperglycemia.

    02:38 You can have small times in which you're blood glucose is above normal.

    02:48 That's okay.

    02:49 You're kidneys will take care of it by filtering out that excess glucose and you'll urinate it out.

    02:55 But if you have high blood glucose levels for long periods of time, such as those that have diabetes.

    03:03 This can be very problematic to a number of basal membranes such as blood vessels as well as even to nerves.

    03:12 Damaging blood vessels and nerves can cause very big problems with the circulation and your ability to sense the external environment.

    03:23 In fact renal function is another thing that is compromised to a great degree if a person has hyperglycemia for long periods of time.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Insulin: Metabolic Effects and Counterregulatory Hormones by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Endocrine Physiology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Lipolysis
    2. Glycolysis
    3. Glycogenolysis
    4. Glucose uptake
    1. Epinephrine
    2. Serotonin
    3. Acetylcholine
    4. Dopamine
    5. L-DOPA
    1. 60-100 mg/dl
    2. 20-25 mg/dl
    3. 25-50 mg/dl
    4. 100-120 mg/dl
    5. 120-160 mg/dl

    Author of lecture Insulin: Metabolic Effects and Counterregulatory Hormones

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD

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