Insulin: Functions

by Thad Wilson, PhD

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    00:00 When insulin binds with receptor of the liver cell hepatocyte.

    00:05 What you are going to get is glucose uptake.

    00:07 We are going to get glycogenesis which is the production of glycogen.

    00:14 So this is the process in which, now glucose is not only entering the cell but going to start storing it.

    00:23 So the enzymes that are associated with making new glucose are being up regulated.

    00:32 There is also an increase in glycolysis in making new fats or lipogenesis as well as protein synthesis.

    00:42 So this whole process of insulin is really not only to bring glucose within a cell.

    00:48 But it is to start building new things.

    00:51 Glycogen, fats, proteins, they are going to be storing energy because you never know when you might need it.

    01:01 In skeletal muscle they do some similar things.

    01:06 The one big difference with skeletal muscle versus liver cell hepatocyte, is that once you stimulate insulin receptors there's going to be an up regulation of the glut receptor.

    01:21 Glut is what transports the glucose into the cell.

    01:26 So there's a specialize glut4 transporter that will be brought to the surface of the cell.

    01:34 And therefore, you're going to be able to bring in even more glucose.

    01:38 It also stimulates the formation of glycogen, glycolysis, making new fats as well as protein synthesis.

    01:50 So those parts are very similar to the liver cell.

    01:54 The big difference is that the glucose is what we call insulin sensitive because you increase the amount of glut4 transporter.

    02:10 Let's now again take a big picture, look at this.

    02:12 What is happening across the whole body.

    02:14 Glucose in response to insulin moves within muscles.

    02:17 Moves within liver cells.

    02:18 Even moves into adipose tissue.

    02:22 Fatty acids also move into adipose tissue.

    02:26 So they can be put together to form fats.

    02:30 Ketoacids don't change.

    02:34 And finally amino acids move into muscles so they can be involve with the protein synthesis.

    02:42 So therefore, you have decreases in all of these functional items in the blood.

    02:49 Glucose goes down, fatty acids go down, ketones go down.

    02:53 And amino acids go down.

    02:55 All in response to insulin.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Insulin: Functions by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Endocrine Physiology.

    Author of lecture Insulin: Functions

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD

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