Insulin: Functions

by Thad Wilson, PhD

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    00:00 When insulin binds with receptor of the liver cell hepatocyte.

    00:05 What you are going to get is glucose uptake.

    00:07 We are going to get glycogenesis which is the production of glycogen.

    00:14 So this is the process in which, now glucose is not only entering the cell but going to start storing it.

    00:23 So the enzymes that are associated with making new glycogen are being up regulated.

    00:32 There is also an increase in glycolysis in making new fats or lipogenesis as well as protein synthesis.

    00:42 So this whole process of insulin is really not only to bring glucose within a cell.

    00:48 But it is to start building new things.

    00:51 Glycogen, fats, proteins, they are going to be storing energy because you never know when you might need it.

    01:01 In skeletal muscle they do some similar things.

    01:06 The one big difference with skeletal muscle versus liver cell hepatocyte, is that once you stimulate insulin receptors there's going to be an up regulation of the glut receptor.

    01:21 Glut is what transports the glucose into the cell.

    01:26 So there's a specialize glut4 transporter that will be brought to the surface of the cell.

    01:34 And therefore, you're going to be able to bring in even more glucose.

    01:38 It also stimulates the formation of glycogen, glycolysis, making new fats as well as protein synthesis.

    01:50 So those parts are very similar to the liver cell.

    01:54 The big difference is that the glucose is what we call insulin sensitive because you increase the amount of glut4 transporter.

    02:10 Let's now again take a big picture, look at this.

    02:12 What is happening across the whole body.

    02:14 Glucose in response to insulin moves within muscles.

    02:17 Moves within liver cells.

    02:18 Even moves into adipose tissue.

    02:22 Fatty acids also move into adipose tissue.

    02:26 So they can be put together to form fats.

    02:30 Ketoacids don't change.

    02:34 And finally amino acids move into muscles so they can be involve with the protein synthesis.

    02:42 So therefore, you have decreases in all of these functional items in the blood.

    02:49 Glucose goes down, fatty acids go down, ketones go down.

    02:53 And amino acids go down.

    02:55 All in response to insulin.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Insulin: Functions by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Endocrine Physiology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Production of glycogen
    2. Production of glucose
    3. Production of glucagon
    4. Polymerization of glucose
    5. Addition of glucose molecule
    1. Increased uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle cells
    2. Increased blood glucose levels
    3. Decreased uptake of glucose by adipocytes
    4. Decreased uptake of glucose by hepatocytes
    5. Increased fatty acid levels in the blood

    Author of lecture Insulin: Functions

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD

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    Great explanation. Thank you.
    By Tomas9A11 . on 10. February 2024 for Insulin: Functions

    Very clear and precise explanation. Very professional. Thank you very much.