Hypercalcemia: Types & Causes

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Hypercalcemia, we talked about the different types. If there’s primary hypoparathyroidism, which is a malignancy of your parathyroid glands, and on your boards and on your wards, you usually will not have other issues per se and what I mean by that is the kidney function should be relatively normal. With that primary hypoparathyroidism, which could be part of MEN type-1, could be part of 2a, right, MEN, multiple endocrine neoplasia, you are then going to result in hypercalcemia because PTH will resorb your calcium from the kidney and resorb the calcium from the bone. The mechanisms of malignancy-related hypercalcemia… bone metastases, resorption; breast, multiple myeloma, prostate, lymphoma, thyroid, lung, so on and so forth. So, metastases from different organs, meaning to say primary cancer existed in breast, metastasized to the bone resulting in resorption of it resulting in hypercalcemia. Multiple myeloma, you’ve-you’ve heard of that punched-out lytic lesions in the bone. Prostate cancer, it might then spread from the prostate out then through the batson-batson paravertebral plexus into the vertebrae therefore bring about hypercalcemia, lymphoma thyroid. Humoral hypercalcemia, PTH-related peptide and what that basically means is that you have paraneoplastic. Two major paraneoplastic conditions that you want to know of where you may then release PTH-related peptide, number one, will be squamous cell cancer of the lung and the other big one will be renal cell carcinoma. Do not forget these two for sure. Because of all that PTH-rp then working upon your PTH receptor, you are then going to reabsorb your calcium resulting in hypercalcemia in with your actual PTH level. “Dr. Raj, aren’t they the same thing?” No, the PTH-related peptide is different from PTH. The PTH is being released from your parathyroid glands and when you have all this hypercalcemia, your parathyroid glands will be shut...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Hypercalcemia: Types & Causes by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Parathyroid Gland Disorders.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Squamous cell lung cancer
    2. Myocardial infarction
    3. Pneumonia
    4. Small cell lung cancer
    5. CHF
    1. Vitamin D
    2. Calcium
    3. Phosphate
    4. PTH
    5. Potassium
    1. Glucocorticoids
    2. Medications that decrease absorption of Vitamin D at the gut
    3. Radiation therapy
    4. Antibiotics (penicillins or cephalosporins)
    5. Lifestyle changes
    1. Low PTH
    2. Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern
    3. Low urinary calcium
    4. Family hx of parathyroidectomy
    5. Mutations in calcium-sensing receptors

    Author of lecture Hypercalcemia: Types & Causes

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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