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Gene Expression – Metabolism and Regulation

by Kevin Ahern, PhD
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    00:00 Now the next method that I talk about was gene expression and this is, what you see on the screen here is simply an illustration about how cells control enzymes. What you see is actually something called a microarray on the screen and it's a plot using color to show for thousands of individual enzymes, whether or not an enzyme is being made and it's comparing it between two tissues. Now this may seem a little complicated, but I'll make it simple here hopefully. The green colors are showing enzymes that are being made in one cell type and the red showing enzymes that are being made in another cell type.

    00:40 So by comparing these two, we can see, well that some genes and each block that you see on the screen refers to a specific gene, some genes are being made only in one cell type and other genes are being made only in another cell type. Where we see black, it indicates some genes are being expressed in neither cell type and this means of course a clear illustration of the fact that cells do have control about whether or not a specific gene is being made. So for example we could be looking at skin cells here versus muscle cells and realize that gene expression and gene expression controls really do happen and they are important tools for cells to be able to use.

    01:23 The last thing I mentioned was organelle localization. So when we look at a eukaryotic cell, this now depicts what I said earlier. There are mitochondria that are there that are little packages that have bundles of enzymes in there and those bundles of enzymes are found only in the mitochondrion. So in the example here, enzymes of fatty acid oxidation.

    01:42 Fatty acid oxidation is very important for somebody like me for example, who thinks about losing weight. Oxidizing fatty acids helps to break down fat of course and it also provides a lot of energy. As we look in the cytoplasm, the fatty acid synthesis enzymes are there.

    01:59 Well here is a catabolic and an anabolic pathway that is physically sequestered, the cell doesn't have to go through other ways of controlling these two pathways because these two anabolic and catabolic pathways are not going to encounter each other.

    02:17 Well we've gone through a variety of things that cells use to control metabolic pathways and I hope in this discussion you have a better understanding about the importance of controlling metabolic pathways and the mechanisms that cells use.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Gene Expression – Metabolism and Regulation by Kevin Ahern, PhD is from the course Biochemistry: Basics.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. The physical separation of enzymes in the different organelles
    2. The chemical modification of an enzyme by another enzyme present in the different organelle
    3. The activation of mitochondrial enzymes under the effect of cytoplasmic enzymes
    4. The deactivation of lysosomal enzymes under the effect of cytoplasmic enzymes
    5. The activation of lysosomal enzymes under the effect of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes
    1. Track expressions of genes in the cells of different tissues
    2. Understand the structure of a gene
    3. Understand the structure of the chromosomes
    4. Track the movement of ions across the cell membranes
    5. Track the movement of water molecules across the semi-permeable membranes during osmosis

    Author of lecture Gene Expression – Metabolism and Regulation

     Kevin Ahern, PhD

    Kevin Ahern, PhD


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