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Extracellular & Intracellular Signaling: Receptor Modifications

by Thad Wilson, PhD
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    How do you control the magnitude of a response? Because in cell-to-cell signaling, you have one cell releasing a packet or a quanta of information then it travels to another spot to signal it. But the cell does have, the target cell has a way to respond. The way it responds is based upon the number of receptors that it has. How can that cell modulate the number of receptors that it has? There can be a down regulation of receptors and there can be up regulation of receptors a very easy way to modify the target effect. Sometimes if you have signals that are too high for too long, you might down regulate the receptor response of this. Other times there might be a clinical condition in which that you have up regulated the number of receptors and therefore you’re hyper responsive to a certain signal. Another way to modulate the receptor cell signaling interactions is by having a certain set of receptors internalized within the cell. This is a handy way to quickly adjust the number of receptors that are expressed. With up regulation and down regulation, it involves making new receptors or pulling them off the membrane. That takes time. If you simply had a group of internalized receptors, in certain conditions, you could have them express on the cell surface. And once they’re expressed on the cell surface, you would be able to increase that signal that’s being sent to the cell. A final way to adjust the sensitivity of a particular response to a quanta or amount of signaling molecule is by something called sensitization or desensitization and this is exactly how it sounds. You have a similar number of receptors but you make them less responsive to the ligand that’s coming. This could be...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Extracellular & Intracellular Signaling: Receptor Modifications by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Membrane Physiology.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Desensitization
    2. Downregulation
    3. Internalization
    4. Sensitization
    5. Externalization
    1. By manipulation of the status of its membrane receptors
    2. By changing the cell membrane
    3. By blocking some receptors located on the cell membrane
    4. By decreasing the amount of receptors manufactured at any given moment
    5. By increasing the amount of receptors manufactured at any given moment
    1. By internalization or externalization
    2. By sensitization
    3. By desensitization
    4. By downregulation
    5. By upregulation
    1. The ability of a cell to make its surface receptors more responsive to a particular stimulus
    2. The ability of a cell to make its surface receptors less responsive to a particular stimulus
    3. The ability of a cell to up-regulate the number of receptors on its surface
    4. The ability of a cell to externalize receptors
    5. The ability of a cell to decrease the number of receptors on its surface
    1. By allowing fewer secondary signals or less protein phosphorylation
    2. By decreasing the number of surface receptors to one or two
    3. By blocking some receptors
    4. By breaking down some receptors
    5. By clipping off some receptors and throwing them into the extracellular matrix
    1. An exaggerated response that allows for amplification of the signal
    2. A diminished response to a stimulus
    3. A repeated connection between the stimulus and the receptor
    4. A permanent modification of the receptor that keeps it constantly activated
    5. A modification of the cell membrane that does not let go of the receptors present within it
    1. Externalization
    2. Internalization
    3. Sensitization
    4. Desensitization
    5. Upregulation
    1. Upregulation
    2. Sensitization
    3. Downregulation
    4. Externalization
    5. Internalization
    1. Getting that transduced signal to the right target thus signaling a particular activation
    2. Changing the configuration of the ligand
    3. Changing the configuration of the receptor
    4. Changing the recognition sites in the proteins connected with the receptor
    5. Altering the final product
    1. ...interesting effects that alter the function of the cell
    2. ...aspecific cell responses
    3. ...interesting components of cell to cell communication
    4. ...interesting steps in cell to cell communication
    5. ...an abnormal result of ligand binding

    Author of lecture Extracellular & Intracellular Signaling: Receptor Modifications

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD


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