Lung cancer is the malignant transformation of lung tissue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The majority of cases are associated with long-term smoking. The disease is generally classified histologically as either small cell lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer. Molecular profiling of the cancer provides further distinction of the tumor's biological behavior, prognosis, and treatment options. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest discomfort. Regional and metastatic spread cause additional symptoms and complications depending on the location and organ(s) affected. Related paraneoplastic syndromes include hypercalcemia, hyponatremia, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, polydermatomyositis, and dermatomyositis. Definitive diagnosis and staging are made by biopsy, genetic mutation with biomarker testing, and imaging. Management is guided by the cancer stage and associated molecular profile. Lung cancer carries an overall poor prognosis.