Gastrointestinal diseases in this section we?ll be diving into.
The intestine begin with the small bowel first and move in to the large bowel
and all the diseases that are associated with this journey.
Diarrhea?s where we begin and obviously, this is going to be high volume output
but then it is important that you are able to properly categorize your diarrhea
so that you?ll be able to find out as to what exactly is causing the diarrhea.
Now, we?re not wasting time and more importantly,
you prevent certain complications taking place in your patient.
For example, physiologically when there?s diarrhea you?re worried about losing bicarbs,
so therefore your patient is in a state of metabolic acidosis
and also when you lose stool excessively, there?s every possibility that the patient
might also be hypokalemic. The potassium levels can be anywhere,
do not forget in this particular cause of metabolic acidosis.
The mechanisms of diarrhea include the following: Osmotic.
Remember we?re in the intestine now, so you should be thinking about osmotic agents
that then remain within the intestine which is then going to pull water in
or diffusion of water into the intestinal lumen does bringing about large,
large, voluminous amounts of diarrhea. Example: lactose intolerance, secretory.
There is some kind of tumor perhaps in which literally it is going to be secreting fluid
into the lumen of the intestine resulting in a secretory type of a diarrhea.
Example for this would be something like VIPoma or maybe perhaps carcinoid tumor.
Altered motility, exudative. Example here would be something like your ischemic bowl disease
of the two types of ischemic bowel disease that you?re quite comfortable with.
It should be ulcerative colitis that?s more exudative
and anorectal dysfunction injury may then result in involuntary loss of stool.
Incontinence is a huge topic on your step.