Gastrointestinal diseases in this section will be diving into.
The intestine begin with the small bowel first and move into the large bowel.
And all the diseases that are associated with this journey.
A diarrhea is where we begin, and obviously this is going to be high volume output
but then it is important that you're able to properly categorize your diarrhea.
So that you'll be able to find out as to what exactly is causing the diarrhea,
now, we're not wasting time
and more importantly you prevent certain complications taking place in your patient.
For example, physiologically, when there is diarrhea,
you're worried about losing bicarbs so therefore your patient is in a state of metabolic acidosis,
and also when you loss stool excessively,
there's every possibility that the patient might also be hypokalemic.
The potassium levels could be anywhere,
do not forget, in this particular cause of metabolic acidosis.
The mechanisms of diarrhea include the following:
Osmotic, remember we're in the intestine now.
So you should be thinking about osmotic agents that then remain within the intestine
which is then going to pour water in or diffusion of water into the intestinal lumen,
does bringing about large, large voluminous amounts of diarrhea.
Example, lactose intolerance. Secretory, there's some kind of tumor perhaps
in which literally it is going to be secreting fluid into circulation -
or excuse me, into the lumen of the intestine, resulting in a secretory type of diarrhea,
example for this, or would be something like a VIPoma, or maybe perhaps, carcinoid tumor.
Altered motility. Exudative, example here would be something like your ischemic bowel disease,
of the two types of ischemic bowel disease that you're quite comfortable
with it should be also ulcerative colitis, that's more exudative.
And anorectal dysfunction/injury may then result in involuntary loss of stool,
incontinence is a huge topic on your step.