Introduction to Diarrhea

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    00:01 Gastrointestinal diseases, in this section we'll be diving into. The intestine begin with the small bowel first and move in to the large bowel. And all the diseases that are associated with this journey. Diarrhea is where we begin. And obviously this is going to be high volume output but then it is important that you are able to properly categorize your diarrhea, so that you will be able to find out as to what exactly is causing the diarrhea. That way you're not wasting time and more importantly you prevent certain complications taking place in your patient.

    00:38 For example, physiologically when there is diarrhea, you're worried about losing bicarbs so therefore your patient is in a state of metabolic acidosis. And also when you lose stool excessively, there is every possibility that the patient might also be hypokalemic. The potassium levels could be anywhere. Do not forget, in this particular course of metabolic acidosis. The mechanisms of diarrhea include the following. Osmotic. Remember we are in the intestine now. So you should be thinking about osmotic agents that then remain within the intestine which is then going to pull water in.

    01:18 Or diffusion of water into the intestinal lumen thus bringing about large, large voluminous amounts of diarrhea. Example, lactose intolerance. Secretory. There is some kind of tumor perhaps in which literally it is going to be secreting fluid into the lumen of the intestine resulting in a secretory type of diarrhea.

    01:45 Example for this would be something like a VIPoma or maybe perhaps carcinoid tumor. Altered motility.

    01:56 Exudative. Example here would be something like your ischemic bowel disease. Of the two types of ischemic bowel disease that you're quite comfortable with, it should be ulcerative colitis. That's more exudative. And anorectal dysfunction/injury may then result in involuntary lost of stool. Incontinence, is a huge topic on your step.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Introduction to Diarrhea by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Small and Large Intestine Diseases.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Metabolic acidosis
    2. Metabolic alkalosis
    3. Respiratory acidosis
    4. Respiratory alkalosis
    5. No change in the electrolytes
    1. Hypokalemia
    2. Hyperkalemia
    3. Hypernatremia
    4. Hyponatremia
    5. Hyperchloremia
    1. Osmotic
    2. Secretory
    3. Anorectal dysfunction
    4. Altered motility
    5. Exudative

    Author of lecture Introduction to Diarrhea

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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