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Control and Regulation

by Thad Wilson, PhD
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    So in this case, we're going to have a variable that's regulated. That regulated variable, something will affect it. So let's say there is an external stressor out there and that's going to cause a change in your regulated variable. What you need to do? How do you know that variable is too high? You need to have various sensors in the body to pick that up. Just like we had baroreceptors when pressure was elevated. So you have a sensor and you may have multiple sensors that all are going to gather the data that is generated by this regulated variable. Now that you have the sensors garnering that data, it needs to send it somewhere because the sensor itself cannot determine what to do. So it sends the data to an integrated system or sometimes also a coordinating system and that is going to coordinate our response to that change that happened to our regulated variable and that signal is then sent to effectors and these effectors are going to be able to then change or cause an alteration in our regulated variable. So we have this four-kind of prong system where we have a regulated variable, sensors, an integrator and coordinating center and effectors all trying to do the various aspects of making sure our regulated variable is coordinated or regulated within a various range. Okay, let's go back to our heart example to try to tease this out further and so we can denote where our regulated variables are, where our sensors are, where our integrator and coordinating system are and what our effectors are going to be. So we will take a look at that in the next diagram. So our sensors in our system for controlling arterial blood pressure are going to be baroreceptors....

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Control and Regulation by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Physiology – Introduction & Central Principles.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Baroreceptors
    2. Thermoreceptors
    3. Ergoreceptors
    4. Metaboreceptors
    5. Neuroreceptors
    1. A change in homeostasis subject to be affected by an internal or external stressor
    2. An external stressor
    3. An internal stressor
    4. A set of parameters
    5. A situation occurring in illness
    1. Via one or multiple sensors
    2. By the stressors themselves
    3. By direct adaptation to the stressors
    4. Via changes in the endothelium of blood vessels
    5. Via local responses
    1. To an Integrator and Coordinating Center
    2. Back to the stressor
    3. To the blood vessels where it was collected
    4. To arteries in the neck
    5. To veins
    1. To cause alterations in the regulated variable
    2. To cause alterations in the Coordinating Center
    3. To cause alterations in the Integrator
    4. To cause alterations in the stressor
    5. To cause alterations in the sensors
    1. …activates baroreceptors that inhibit the activity of sympathetic neurons
    2. ...activates baroreceptors that stimulate the activity of sympathetic neurons
    3. ...activates baroreceptors that inhibit the activity of parasympathetic neurons
    4. ...activates baroreceptors that inhibit the activity of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the nucleus ambiguus that influence heart rate.
    5. ...causes increased vasoconstrictive effects of sympathetic innervation on the peripheral blood vessels
    1. …activates baroreceptors that stimulate the activity of sympathetic neurons
    2. …activates baroreceptors that inhibit the activity of sympathetic neurons
    3. ...activates baroreceptors that stimulate the activity of parasympathetic neurons
    4. ...activates baroreceptors that stimulate the activity of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the nucleus ambiguus that influence heart rate.
    5. ...causes decreased vasoconstrictive effects of sympathetic innervation on the peripheral blood vessels
    1. ...stiffening of the vessel walls causing a higher pressure necessary for firing of sensors
    2. ...dilation of vessel walls causing a higher pressure necessary for firing of sensors
    3. ...delayed effector responses
    4. ...quicker effector responses
    5. ...decreased effectiveness of the Integrator and Coordinating Center

    Author of lecture Control and Regulation

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD


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