So let’s take look at the role of cognitive processes
in associative of learning.
So this couple of different models
and couple of ways to look at
we’re gonna break down each.
The first are behaviorists
they focus solely on observable behaviors
and look at the consequences.
Whereas cognitive psychologists
focus on the brain, cognition,
and their effects on how we
interact with our environment.
So that’s a little bit
Then there’s insight learning
when previously learned behaviors
are combined in unique ways.
So you piece in to gather that stuff
that you’ve learned with this
what I’ve learned and that allows
you to actually process.
Then there’s a latent learning is
when something is learned
but is not expressed as an observable
behavior until it’s required.
So say for example, as a youngster,
you sat in a car with your parents
and you’ve seen how they drive.
And I think you pretty much
just by observing.
You’ve captured really what you need
to understand how to drive a car.
you understand the steps, right?
So, one foot on the gas.
One foot on the breaks.
Hands on the steering wheel.
You get that.
You might understand the intricacy of action
doing it coz’ you’ve never done it.
But you haven’t tucked away.
Then, one day when
and your parents have decided
to go away on vacation,
and you feel like, I feel that this might be
the opportunity for me to drive the car.
You’re tapping into that
So nobody actually sat there,
walked through right now
live how to drive the car.
You’re tapping that into
So, conditioning is not
simply behavioral learning
but instead has a cognitive component.
And that’s really important aspect.
Coz’ a lot of times, people assume
its sole behavioral learning.
And instead, you have to realize
that there are some cognitive aspects
that need to be considered.
So learning is limited by the
biological constraints of the organism.
So what do we saying here?
We’re saying that an organism can
only learn what is biologically allowed.
So they might not have
the cognitive abilities
because of a deficiency in
their biology. Right?
So, they might not have a well develop structure
that allows for that type of learnings.
So there is a biological limit to how
much an organism can learn.
Now, associative learning is best achieved
when using stimulus that are related to survival.
So we understand that if you paired together
something that is survival based,
they acquired the learning
So much more quickly
if it’s biologically relevant.
An example is when
the first time you ever eaten some
that’s made you, completely noxious.
So let’s say maybe you’ve had some
raw fish that is passed its best due date.
And you eat it.
And you get violently ill.
And you’re throwing up and stuffs
coming out of every orifice.
It’s not a good situation.
And you feel in your mind,
when you’re on a bathroom floor vomiting,
you’re going “Oh my God,
I’m gonna die.”
And after you recover,
you never forget what you had
or what you’ve eaten
that made you sick.
And you have this taste of version.
Just a smell sometimes of raw fish
or fish period. People like,
“Oh, I can’t even look at fish.”
Now, the reason is that is develop
is that you’ve learn that raw fish,
me almost died, I now hate fish.
And so that learning is extremely fast and
is extremely profound
because your body and brain has realized that,
this is biologically relevant, this may kill me.
And you see this very, very common
in the wild with animals is that
they will avoid certain plants and certain animals
that they know might be toxic
or might kill them
because they have learned
that illness makes me sick.
And they will no longer forge
for that type of plant and or animal.
We have a phenomenal call
And this is the tendency of an
organism to revert to instinctive
or innate behaviors that interfere
with a conditioned response.
So if recall from conditioning that is
when I compare together a learnings.
So, hear the bells, pull the lever,
get a piece of food.
Or in terms of this kind of box
the removal of the electric shock.
At the end of the day, the animals gets conditioned
and learns what it needs to learn.
Now, in times of extreme stress or in situations
where they don’t have the time to think,
they actually river pack to going to something
that they found normally.
So say normally the rat in moments of stress
is not thinking I get a pull lever.
It might curl up in a ball in the corner
and have self-growing behavior or looking its pause.
And that’s something that a rat
might do innately or instinctively.
And instead of going to the
they go back to reverting to
that earlier instinctual response.
You see this with humans as well,
in times when somethings happened
the tendency is to go back to crying
in the corner and asking from mum.
Right. So, this is linked back to this being pre-wired.
And we call it instinctive drift.
So now, we’re gonna linked
learning to specific brain regions.
Cerebellum-motor tasks, amygdala-fear response,
these are pairings of the actual task of a motor task
and a brain region in emotion
and fear to amygdala.
So, we clearly know that there is a link
in terms of brain structures to learning.
And the reasons that’s relevant
is anytime you compare a behavior
or something like learning to a specific
You can validate it and it gives you some sense
that okay this is isn’t just a model.
There’s some consistency and there’s
something that I can look at.
We know this to be true as well because if
there’s ever truama or damage to the cerebellum
well the amygdala, we notice that there’s
a change and the ability to learn.
And learning and memory are also dependent
upon modulation of synaptic connections.
And this was illustrated in the sections
that we talked about in learning
that where we talk about the LTP phenomena
and we’ve also talk about the same memory
and thing going from coming in
and being perceived
and then going through short-term memory
and then until long term memory.
This process we know is synoptically driven.
So we know that short term memory
passing information on long term memory
is done through the process of LTP
which is the Long Term Potentiation
and this where memories were consolidated.