Move on. Here we go to the middle portion
and the middle portion, we will explain upon
this and we will do the same thing. As we
go through it, we will move a little bit quicker.
Now, as we go through divisions up until seven
and then eight, and that is an important point
that you want to keep in mind here. Between
seven and eight divisions, by that we mean
generations of branches that are taking place.
Well, now you notice that there is goblet
cells. Well those goblet cells become
important for us. Earlier, we talked about
how wet mucous is and that is called Reid index,
I repeat that again. This is still non-respiratory.
What does that mean? This is the conducting
zone. It’s responsibility is to do what?
To conduct air from the ambience into the
alveoli. It is a strict
responsibility. Here we have bronchioles and
then once again, we will find these to be
the conducting airways.
Let's take a look at the infections here again.
Well, number 2 represents the most common
cause of pneumonia in children, virally. This
is respiratory syncytial virus. A child, well,
what about a child? Where are they playing
perhaps? Especially, nowadays, right. Parents
are so busy that they can’t take care of
their children and it is just
the fact of life. And so therefore, early
on, you start placing the child in a
daycare center, I have be careful, and not
say nursing home, but a daycare center. So,
you place the child in a daycare center,
they are playing around and they might get
exposed to a lot of people, of course. And
so, during that time, couple of things that
a child develops quite commonly would be a
pneumonia or respiratory issues and then also
diarrhoea as well. Interesting enough, both
diarrhoea and the pneumonia, that we are seeing
here, virally, both begin with a letter “R”,
So, we have respiratory syncytial
virus, virally caused pneumonia in a child
and we have rotavirus. No way, and that is
a diarrhoea, rotavirus. There is bronchopneumonia,
as we said, more distally, and bronchopneumonia
it’s a fact that you have infection in
the bronchi. Here, Klebsiella pneumonia becomes
our primary example.
Diseases. Here we have asthma. With asthma,
the one that is all too common in our society
is atopic type of asthma. Atopic type of asthma
is one in which the individual has been exposed
to environmental allergens. Okay, that is
one. And then you have the intrinsic. And
by intrinsic, we mean what? Much less
common, but may be perhaps you have
an adult who, upon exposure to the cold, has
asthma-like symptoms. What is this? Is it
part of your? It could be part of your chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease.
The three that have quite a little bit of
overlap with signs and symptoms include, once
again, asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
We will take a look at where I'll show you
shades or circles in which we have overlapping
signs and symptoms. And then, of course, chronic
bronchitis, we talked about as well. And with
all that inflammation, at some point, you might
cause complete destruction, annihilation of
that bronchi and difficulty with getting air
out. So, when we say obstruction, are we referring
to difficulty with getting the air in? Not
at all. It is difficulty with getting air
out. For example, how can I prove that?
Is emphysema COPD? Of course, it is. And tell
me about your anteroposterior diameter or
anteroposterior size. It is enlarged, isn’t
it? And it is because, once again, air is
being trapped in your lungs. It is important
that you pay attention to the organization
and as you go through here, get a nice little
overview, don’t you, of your infections and diseases.