Alright let’s get into Associative Learning.
How is that we learn things
and how is that we make that connections sometimes?
So we’re going to walk in
through something you’ve probably seen before
but we’re going to do it anyways
because it’s really, really interesting
and you need it for the MCAT
and that’s looking at Classical versus Operative Conditioning.
So what we’re talking about here is a process
in which two stimulus are paired
in such a way that they respond
to one of the stimulus is changing.
So you’ve heard this before
at probably a thousand times in your classes
this is the Pavlov’s experiments
but we’re going to walk through that
and I think it’s going to make a lot sense
once we tied all together.
So, it’s also known as responding conditioning
and this is where the experimenter, Ivan Pavlov
used some of his dog experiments
and he did a really simple yet refined experiments
and where he was able to show
how you could take two stimuluses
and two stimuli and then use them
in terms of pairing together
to initiate a response out of your subject
or these little doggies.
So there's a couple things
that this type of conditioning relies upon,
so the first you going to need is the neutral stimulus.
So this is something that really doesn’t elicit
a response at all, okay.
They’re going to have
an Unconditioned Stimulus or US
and this will elicit an unconditioned response.
And they were going to have
an unconditioned Response,
so this is something that’s it’s innate. So it’s not
what we said it’s not learned, it’s more biological
this is a not something that subject that dog
or you yourself had been taught
this is something that you do.
And we’re also going to have an conditioned stimulus
and this is something that was originally neutral
so it didn’t really have any effect
but now we’ve made it have an effect because
we’ve paired it with an unconditioned Stimulus.
And then finally we’re going to have a conditioned Response
which is the whole kind of point of this exercise
and that there's a learned response
to the conditioned stimulus, okay.
So all these terms do make a lot of sense
we walk through actual example here.
So let’s take a look at our friend, the dog.
So little doggy here is sitting in his cage
and before we initiate the experiment,
we would give the dog
his unconditioned stimulus which is food
and we would see an unconditioned response
which is salivation or drooling.
We’ve all done this you’ve think of
about going to mamma’s house
and you walk in and you are presented with the food
and it’s put on the table and you just see the food
and you’re “thhhhht” you are doing this
like I can't wait to eat mamma’s food
and you start drooling all over the place, right.
That is a Unconditioned response
because the food is not hasn’t been condition
it’s just an automatic biological response
that you get of drooling.
Now, if you’re to take in neutral stimulus,
it’s something that typically
shouldn’t really elicit any type of response
like a bell or a tuning fork, anything.
That bell goes off and you’re saying,
“What was that bell all about?
I don’t get this.”
you’re not going to respond
in any other way
other than being maybe a little bit puzzled
but you’re not going to start
salivating or drooling.
Now, during the process of conditioning,
what we’re going to do is
we’re going to take
that normal unconditioned stimulus
of the food,
we’re going to now introduce that neutral stimulus
so before this bell it wasn’t really doing anything
but we’ve now put the bell with the food
and we’re going to see a Unconditioned response.
So this is the process of conditioning
and little doggy here is “ping”
he gets his nice dog chow
and all of a sudden it sees the food
and also it heard the bell and starts drooling.
You do this over and over
and repeat it in repeated fashion
and every time now the dog starting to learn
and it starting to get conditioned
that everytime I hear the bell, I get my food
and it start to drool and you do this over and over
and eventually it will get to a point
where we have conditioned to this response.
Sorry, we have conditioned the stimulus
to get a conditioned response.
So the bell “ping” will get you salivation
even in the absence of food, okay.
So now I’m ringing the bell,
I haven’t given the dog’s puppy chow
but he's already started to drool
because he's learned in the past
that when he gets his bell, he gets his food
and so we called that a conditioned response,
conditioned to the conditioned stimulus
which is the bell, okay.
So I think we have some figure here
to walk you through that,
as you can see we have four different situations
we’re going to walk you through before, during
and after conditioning.
So before, the dog would see the food
and it would salivate
–unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response.
Then we have the conditioning, so this is, sorry before
conditioning we have this tuning fork or bell
or any sound of any kind neutral
we should get no response,
no conditioned response.
Now we start the process of conditioning,
the food plus the bell and or tuning fork
and we start to see the dog salivate
and this is the process of conditioning.
And then finally,
once we’ve conditioned the dog,
we present the tunic fork or a bell
and we will see that the dog starts to salivate.
So that we’ve now have a conditioned response
via a conditioned stimulus.
So the process of classical conditioning includes Aquisition.
This refers to the process of learning the conditioned
response. So it needs to acquire and learn that connection,
that bell plus food equals me being happy.
There's Extinction. Now, this won’t outlast forever.
So if I present the conditioned stimulus
and I’ll going to get a conditioned response
or unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus
together I’ll get my conditioned response.
When you separate that, if you remove the bell
from the equation or if you remove sorry the food from
the equation, at some point the dog is going to say,
“Yeah, yeah, yeah you keep ringing this bell
but where’ my food, where’s my puppy chow?”
and he's going to stop salivating
and it might start getting a little mad
and might bark and bite your finger off.
So this is a phase during which we have extinction
and the dog is
let’s say for now for lack of better term
is forgetting that conditioned response,
it’s forgetting that relationship
that you’ve created, okay.
Now, we can have something called
and that is when that conditioned response
that you once had that was lost can be returned.
If you reintroduced the conditioned stimulus
so you were doing bell, you were doing bell
but there's never any food coming
and the dog just says,
“Forget it, I’m not salivating,
I’m not getting any excited.
You’ve been doing that whole bell thing
for a while and I haven’t seen any food.”
but then maybe after a little while you say,
“Okay, I feel bad for you mister puppy
so I’m going to ring the bell and
I’m going to give you your food.”
And the dog gets excited again and this
“Oh my God it’s happening again.
The bell and the food” and it starts salivating
and that’s called Spontaneous recovery
because you have recovered
that conditioned response.
You can also have the phenomenon called Generalization.
So this is when the dog will now respond
to a related but different conditioned stimulus
and you will still get the same response.
So on our dog analogy I kept doing
the bell or the tuning fork
and the dog will get excited when the food came
and will salivate and we’ve conditioned that response.
Now, what if we go to something that’s not
a tuning fork or bell but it’s kind of related
like a horn that you have a little bike.
so you have a “heho” you have a little horn
and the dog starts salivating and you’re like
always like I never really presented this horn before
but it’s associating a sound to food
to the conditioned response of salivating.
So we call that Generalization.
And then finally we can have Discrimination
which is the opposite of that
is as you tried to present something
related like that horn or a whistle
and the dog just looks at you saying,
“That’s no bell, that’s no tuning fork
and there's no food coming right now.
I’m not going to salivate for you”
so that’s Discrimination, okay.
So all of these are all different aspects
of Classical Conditioning.
Now here’s a figure that you can see and it’s going to highlight
the different phases that its talked about
so we can have on the bottom we have Time
and on the YX we have the Strength
of the Conditioned Response so the salivation.
So it can be really, really weak
or can be it can be strong.
So initially during the Acquisition phase,
we have the conditioned stimulus
and the unconditioned stimulus being presented together
and we’re getting a conditioned response.
Now we see the first dash line is when
we’re initiating the extinction phase
if we no longer present the unconditioned stimulus
so it’s getting just the bell but no food.
And slowly you see the response drop off
and the conditioned response is lost
then we have a gap or a pause
that can be weeks, days, months
what have you where nothing is done
and then all of a sudden
we present the conditioned stimulus
and the unconditioned stimulus again
And we see some more recovery
But then it will go through
the same process of extinction
if you remove the unconditioned stimulus.
Now, what I want you to realize is
or that spontaneous recovery
can happen quite quickly
and it doesn’t require a lot
and it’s as if the dog remembers
that conditioning that has already happened
is sort to remember what is already
learned happens faster
than starting from scratch and having to
try to recondition that dog.