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ATPases

by Thad Wilson, PhD
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    The next one we’re going to go through is our ATPases. The prototype that we’re going to use for this is a V-type calcium or V-type sodium-potassium ATPase or a pump. Now, why are these pumps so important? Well, this is important because the last two things we went through, pores and ion channels, needed to have a concentration gradient for there to be any transport across the membrane. Here, we are creating the gradient or we are pumping against the gradient. So we don’t need to rely on a gradient, we can do it ourselves by using energy to get us across that particular cell membrane. So that’s why this is called active transport. And this is used to either establish a gradient or move something against other gradient. Okay, besides having ATPases in places like the plasma membrane, we can also use ATPases in other places such as the endoplasmic reticulum. There’s a certain kind of calcium pump located on the endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells that allows us to pump in calcium. And why this is so important is this is going to help us relax a muscle by removing calcium from the cytosol of that muscle cell. Now, what are the important aspects of having these particular ATPases? Well, the first thing to think about is there needs to be ATP hydrolysis occur. Now, this occurs both on our pumps, as well as on our ABC transporters and these are not pumps in themselves but still require ATP hydrolysis or energy to cause the transport process to work. But let’s get back to our prototype. Usually, for our prototype, what we’re trying to do is pump a certain number of ions across the cell. For this sodium-potassium ATPase, we’re going to be pumping an unequal number...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture ATPases by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Membrane Physiology.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. P-type
    2. V-type
    3. F-type
    4. ABC-type
    5. pore
    1. Inner gate opening
    2. Outer gate opening
    3. Sodium entry
    4. Sodium excitation
    5. Potassium release to the outside of the cell
    1. They use energy to create a gradient
    2. They undergo a conformational shape change
    3. They are bigger
    4. They don't produce an electrochemical gradient
    5. They exchange cations
    1. Energy is used to pump a substance across the cell membrane against a gradient.
    2. Energy is used to create a gradient.
    3. Energy is not necessary to create a gradient.
    4. A negative gradient is created.
    5. Ions are transported following their own gradient.
    1. …calcium into the endoplasmic reticulum away from the cytosol.
    2. sodium into the endoplasmic reticulum away from the cytosol.
    3. calcium out of the endoplasmic reticulum and into the cytosol.
    4. sodium out of the cell membrane.
    5. potassium into the cytosol.
    1. …three Na+ outside the cell and two K+ inside the cell.
    2. ...two Na+ outside the cell and two K+ inside the cell.
    3. ...three Na+ inside the cell and two K+ outside the cell.
    4. ...two Na+ inside the cell and two K+ outside the cell.
    5. ...four Na+ inside the cell and two K+ outside the cell.
    1. To create an electrogenic gradient
    2. To remove positive charges from the inside of the cell
    3. To remove negative charges from the outside of the cell
    4. To restore electrogenic balance
    5. To facilitate passive entry of water following sodium
    1. In the basolateral side of the cell membrane
    2. In the apical side of the cell membrane
    3. In the basal side of the cell membrane
    4. At the luminal side of tight junctions
    5. At the luminal side of gap junctions
    1. Three Sodium molecules enter the pump from the inside of the cell
    2. Three Sodium molecules enter the pump from the outside of the cell
    3. Two Potassium molecules enter the pump from the inside of the cell
    4. Three Potassium molecules enter the pump from the outside of the cell
    5. Two Sodium molecules enter the pump from the outside of the cell
    1. The hydrolysis of ATP
    2. Inorganic phosphate leaving the pump
    3. ATP binds to the pump
    4. Organic phosphate leaving the pump
    5. ADP binds to the pump

    Author of lecture ATPases

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD


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