The types of acids that you could get.
So, these are where, what type of acid it might be.
First you have Volatile acids.
Volatile acids are primarily carbon dioxide.
So, you don’t always think of carbon dioxide
as an acid but it really is.
It fits in to the carbonic
and hydrase equation
and if you have CO2 plus
water, forms carbonic acid
and then, will this associate into hydrogen ion
and a bicarb. That process is acidic.
So, carbon dioxide in this
case is acting like an acid.
Non- volatile acids, these are stabler
but these are harder for the body to deal with.
A volatile acid is easy for the body
to deal with. You just blow off CO2.
But a Non- volatile acid has to be not only
taking care of but usually at the level of the kidney.
We have things like sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid
and you even have some organic acids
associated with different types of amino acids.
You have a very small amounts
of bases that are added to the system.
This is mainly from your gastrointestinal tract.
You do have buffers. Buffers
are going to be very important.
You can hold on to a hydrogen
ion or release it as a buffer.
So it really acts to stabilize
the pH in a narrower range.
Our big buffers that we use in
the body; the first one is bicarbonate.
And bicarbonates going to be
circulating around the blood,
it’s going to bind majority
of the hydrogen ions.
but we also do have some
non- bicarb base buffers.
Things like phosphates, things like proteins
these can also buffer hydrogen ions.
Probably, not as important as bicarb
but it’s part of the overall buffering process.
And so, we need to discuss them.
Some cells we utilize by certain buffering
techniques or types more than others.
So, let’s just go through
a couple example pH changes.
This way we can get a better insight into how the
pH will change when you add an acid or add a base.
So, let’s first add an acid.
So let’s say we add a certain
amount of an acid to a beaker.
Then we wait until that
particular beaker equilibrates.
In this case, you’ll see that
there are more hydrogen ions around
which will decrease the pH.
In our example here of the acid
that was added, we lowered pH by 0,03.
It doesn’t seem like a big pH change, right?
0,03 it’s not even 1 right?
But think arterial blood needs to have
a pH at 7,4 plus or minus (±) 0,05.
So a 0,3 change could take
it out of homeostatic normal.
If we add now a base, rather than
an acid, we put it in to our beaker,
we sit in let it equilibrate
and we have an end solution.
We take the pH of that and we
maybe give a ph change of an increase of 3.
Again, it doesn’t seem like
a much to have a 0,3 increase.
But again, that can take you
out of your homeostatic normal.
And therefore, you would
be in an alkalimic condition.
So, whether you add
an acid or add a base,
you have to think about how
that is going to change your pH.
What acids could we add?
Well, you could add a volatile one like CO2.
You can add a non- volatile one like something
like a sulfuric acid or from uric acid.
But if you want to do something like add a base,
therefore it’s probably coming from the GI tract
but it’s gonna be something with
an OH kind of group attached to it.