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Types of Tumors: Tissue, Benign and Malignant – Neoplasia

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    00:01 Let's do the naming quickly.

    00:03 Tissue, if it's epithelium, and it's a benign type of proliferation or neoplasia.

    00:08 You call this an adenoma or papilloma. If epithelium, and it goes on to malignancy, you call this cancer adenocarcinoma or papillary carcinoma. Adeno- What does that mean to you? Glandular. So where might you be? How about the breast? How about the GI tract? Such as the stomach. Such as, what if I told you distal part of the oesophagus.

    00:40 How did the oesophagus then go on to develop adenocarcinoma? Barrett's oesophagus, metaplasia was the first step of change, you went into dysplasia, you had to.

    00:51 Then the distal portion of the oesophagus secondary to persistant GERD, or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease may result in adenocarcinoma. Everything that we do in basic, and every single chapter and every single concept that we will be working together with, I will be giving you clinical application.

    01:10 You cannot just look at this table and memorise it. What's the point? This is not a memorization exam.

    01:16 Each one of these points is a patient.

    01:21 Mesenchyme, where in benign which is fibroma or lipoma, whereas if it becomes malignant, this then becomes a sarcoma.

    01:28 Now when you think about sarcoma, the spread here usually, as a rule of thumb in pathology, will be hematogenous, but does'nt have to be. Well, sarcoma tends to be more hematogenous type of spread if you are looking at metastasis. We will talk more later. Melanocytes. What does it mean when you have a bunch of melanocytes that cluster together? We have'nt gone on to cancer yet. We have'nt gone in to actual malignancy. Nevus. Depending as to where the clusters of melanocytes then deposit Then it gives you particular types of naevi. For example, you could have a junction nevus, you could have intradermal nevus, so on and so forth. Or you could have superficial.

    02:12 At some point of time, if a nevus becomes let's say dysplastic. There's that word again. Dysplasia.

    02:19 What does that mean? Disordered growth. Increased proliferation. Very much behaves like a neoplasia.

    02:26 Benign, we have nevus. If this nevus goes on to become dysplastic, your patient is at risk of developing melanoma.

    02:35 How often or how common is melanoma? It is the most popular, I hate saying that word but it is one in which it's extremely common, it's growing. It is the fastest growing cancer on planet earth.

    02:49 Could I be any more dramatic? Melanoma. In dermatology, in melanoma we will talk about superficial, different types, acral, so on and so forth. Now, lymohocytes. If you have a cancer that is originating from the lymph nodes, you call this a lymphoma.

    03:06 Examples of lymphoma that you know off already include Hodgkin's and Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    03:11 Our focus, in WBC pathology, in hematology will be specifically more so Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma because that seems to be an area in which students, for whatever reason feel confused.

    03:26 Well, I am going to walk you through exactly what you need to know for what's known as your Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For example, Burrkitt's lymphoma, you've heard it before.

    03:34 You have heard of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. You have heard of Follicular Lymphoma.

    03:37 You have heard of Hairy Cell. You have heard of all these different types of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    03:42 I am going to put all this into perspective for you when the time is right.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Types of Tumors: Tissue, Benign and Malignant – Neoplasia by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Cellular Pathology: Basic Principles.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Adenocarcinoma
    2. Adenoma
    3. LIpoma
    4. Sarcoma
    5. Metanoma
    1. Melanocytes
    2. Lymphocytes
    3. Mesenchyme
    4. Epithelium
    5. Glandular
    1. Hematogenous
    2. Lymphatic
    3. Cutaneous
    4. Tumor rupture
    5. Follicular

    Author of lecture Types of Tumors: Tissue, Benign and Malignant – Neoplasia

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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