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Tumor Suppressor Genes: Definition and Inactivation – Carcinogenesis

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    Where we are here with carcinogenesis is finally, well, the inactivation of tumor suppressor gene and now give you tables and we'll talk further about what this means to you. So tumor suppressor genes, what are these? They encode proteins that regulate and suppress the two that we already talked about include Rb and p53. Both of this tumor suppressor gene so that you prevent the cell and we focused upon getting through G1 and to S phase. Here, p53 prevents two things or has two functions. Number 1, if the cell can be repaired it can be, you can recruit your DNA repair genes and then p53 will do that, repair the cell and put it back in the cell cycle. If that is not possible, then p53 will then recruit those enzymes necessary to bring about apoptosis. So it will guard the cell properly. Rb. Can you picture Rb for me. The Rb is bound to E2F, here it literally guards the arrest points between G1 and S phase. With the help of whom? E2F. What's the name of the enzyme that causes phosphorylation of Rb. That's a kinase. Which one do we focus upon specifically, cyclin D/CDK4. All of this should speak volumes to you when I'm reading this. Inactivation of tumor suppressor gene there is something called the 'two hit hypothesis'. Now this is not a big deal but, well nothing is a big deal, once you are actually knowledgeable of what's going on. So let's bring you knowledge. 'Two hit hypothesis'. You want to think about mother and father. In order for a patient to then or progeny to develop a cancer then both of the allelles have to be hit. Once they have been hit in the progeny, unfortunately the child is going to...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Tumor Suppressor Genes: Definition and Inactivation – Carcinogenesis by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Cellular Pathology: Basic Principles.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. p53
    2. Rb
    3. E2F
    4. Cyclin D
    5. MDM2
    1. Second hit: inherited germline mutation
    2. Both gene copies must be inactivated
    3. First hit: inherited germline mutation
    4. First hit: inherited somatic mutation
    5. Second hit: acquired somatic mutation
    1. Germline mutation of Rb on chromosome 13
    2. Germline mutation of p53 on chromosome 17
    3. Sporadic mutation of Rb on chromosome 13
    4. Germline mutation of p53 on chromosome 13
    5. Germline mutation of Rb on chromosome 17
    1. Lymphocytic retinal tumor
    2. Weight loss
    3. Mediastinal nodule
    4. Infertility
    5. Multiple primary cancers

    Author of lecture Tumor Suppressor Genes: Definition and Inactivation – Carcinogenesis

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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