Tumor Progression: Adenoma Carcinoma Sequence – Carcinogenesis

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    The flow chart here, you will notice that we completed quite a bit. And before we move on, I want to show you as to how much progress you have made. You walked through all the different chemicals, radiation and viruses that are responsible for carcinogenesis. You have talked about DNA repair and how if that goes rye may result in carcinogenesis. Also talked about inactivation of tumor suppressor gene, activation of oncogene. We just completed our discussion of quickly how to evade apoptosis. We talked quite a bit so does'nt this flow chart now seem a hack of a lot more manageable. Where are we now? We are going to increase the proliferation. We are going to progress the tumor further. So therefore, just to make sure we're clear understand the following. So you have proliferation taking place. Proliferation takes place, hyperplasia. You are moving towards cancer. What's the next step after hyperplasia that is a little bit or a lot more dangerous. It's called dysplasia. And whenever you have dysplasia if you pathologically, the term in which we will talk about alot, not to worry. That nucleus that is oh so very important for proliferation. If you are worried about cancer, now that nucleus is referred to as being atypical. Atypical nucleus in pathology means that oh my goodness, I have a cell that is about, it' on the brink of going on to cancer. Now once cancer sets in, or malignancy sets in, can the membrane still be intact? Yes it can. You call that in-situ. In-situ is a malignancy in which the membrane is intact. Very simple as far as you are concerned. Eventually what may happen? Progression then you metastasis. Let's first talk about the progression. First we will do adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Understand the topic....

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Tumor Progression: Adenoma Carcinoma Sequence – Carcinogenesis by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Cellular Pathology: Basic Principles.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Cancer is confined to area of origin
    2. Cancer is invading local tissues
    3. Cancer has metastasized
    4. Cancer has progressed through it's membrane
    5. Cancer has spread to local lymph nodes
    1. Stabilizes malignant DNA for further replication
    2. Creates monoclonality
    3. Is considered the "second hit" in the gene mutation
    4. Predisposes a patient to further proto-oncogene mutations
    5. Allows for hematogenous spread
    1. Metastasis
    2. Tumor size
    3. Number of lymph nodes involved
    4. Number of tumors
    5. Location of lymph nodes involve (local vs distant)
    1. Adenomas
    2. Telomerase
    3. Metastasis
    4. KRAS mutations
    5. Methylation abnormalities

    Author of lecture Tumor Progression: Adenoma Carcinoma Sequence – Carcinogenesis

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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