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Vaccination: A Closer Look on Subunit Vaccines, A Closer Look on Toxoid Vaccines, A Closer Look on Conjugate Vaccines

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    Regarding subunit vaccines, first of all looking at some diseases that are caused by viruses that we can protect using subunit vaccines - the Hepatitis B virus, there is a vaccine based upon recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen. This is produced in Saccharomyces. The human papillomavirus - there’s a vaccine based upon recombinant L1 major capsid proteins that self assemble into virus-like particles. Regarding protection against bacterial diseases using subunit vaccines, there’s the DTaP, which is the acellular pertussis vaccine which is inactivated pertussis toxin and it has one or more other bacterial components. For example, filamentous hemagglutinin or pertactin which is an outer membrane protein and fimbriae, plus bacterial toxoid and tetanus toxoid. And then we have the meningococcal serogroup B vaccines, based upon recombinant Neisseria meningitides group B proteins. Here we have an example of a polyvalent virus like particle based vaccine, the Gardasil-9 vaccine. This is a human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine. What that means-- it has nine different antigens in it. It uses virus-like particles derived from the major capsid, the L1 proteins of nine different human papillomavirus types. These are types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. And these self-assemble into these recombinant virus-like particles that are produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They are released from the yeast cells by cell disruption and purified using chemical and physical methods. They are then adsorbed onto preformed aluminium-containing adjuvant called amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate. They are given to females in the age range 9 to 26 years old for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer and genital warts. And to boys and young men aged 9 to 26 years old for the prevention of anal cancer and genital warts. So looking at toxoid vaccines, these are chemically inactivated bacterial exotoxins. They protect...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Vaccination: A Closer Look on Subunit Vaccines, A Closer Look on Toxoid Vaccines, A Closer Look on Conjugate Vaccines by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Vaccine Immunology. It contains the following chapters:

    • A Closer Look at Subunit Vaccines
    • A Closer Look at Toxoid Vaccines
    • A Closer Look at Conjugate Vaccines

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Bacterial outer membrane protein (OMP)
    2. Virus-like particle (VLP)
    3. Toxoid
    4. Capsular polysaccharide
    5. Lipid antigen
    1. Acellular pertussis, diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid
    2. HBsAg
    3. Recombinant L1 major capsid proteins
    4. Recombinant N. meningitidis
    5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    1. Protect from infection
    2. Composed of chemically inactivated bacterial exotoxins
    3. Include tetanus toxoid and diptheria toxoid
    4. Produce a response which results in memory B cells
    5. Composed of harmless toxoids
    1. Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells
    2. Class switching from IgG to IgM antibodies
    3. A T cell independent response
    4. Recognition of diptheria toxioid
    5. Recognition of antigens that normally evade immune system

    Author of lecture Vaccination: A Closer Look on Subunit Vaccines, A Closer Look on Toxoid Vaccines, A Closer Look on Conjugate Vaccines

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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