Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

by Brian Alverson, MD

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    00:02 Last, let's go through Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return.

    00:08 Here on the left side of your slide, you can see a normal heart.

    00:13 On the right side of your slide, we're looking at a total anomalous pulmonary venous return.

    00:19 I think this image might look confusing to you at first, so I want to walk you through what exactly is happening.

    00:26 The blood then comes back from the lungs through that very red-looking pulmonary vein into the superior vena cava.

    00:36 It's not going back to the left atrium like it's supposed to.

    00:38 This is totally anomalous.

    00:40 That blood then goes back to the right atrium, back to the right ventricle, out to the lungs again.

    00:45 You can see we have a problem.

    00:47 How is the blood going to get into the body? Well, it's going to blow through that patent foramen ovale that's between the two atria.

    00:56 Now, the blood returns, crosses into that atria, goes to the left ventricle, and out to the body.

    01:03 You can see why these patients are cyanotic at birth.

    01:06 There's a lot of mixing of blood.

    01:08 The right-sided blood is mixing with the left-sided blood before it goes out to the body.

    01:12 In these patients, the blood can return to a number of different places and it can be truly remarkable.

    01:23 About 50 percent of the time, the blood is like this picture - it comes back to a supercardiac location from the pulmonary system.

    01:35 About 20 percent of the time, the blood can be infracardiac coming into the inferior vena cava.

    01:41 20 percent of the time, the blood can come directly back into the heart but in the wrong spot, usally the right atrium.

    01:49 Or it can be mixed - it can be any of the above.

    01:54 Sometimes the blood can even come back into the liver.

    01:58 So every patient with total anomalous pulmonary venous return is going to have a slightly different cardiac physiology that has to be fully understood before surgical repair can be made.

    02:10 These patients will undergo a complicated surgical repair to try and get them more back to an appropriate cardiac physiology.

    02:21 I'm going to close now with a trick, which will help you try to remember the types of cyanotic heart disease and it's easy if you just use your hand.

    02:31 Remember, there are five types and I remember them like this, "One, two, three, four, five." I'll go through them one at a time.

    02:41 One is truncus and you can see my thumb is a trunk coming off the main mixing of the right and left ventricles.

    02:49 Next is transposition and you can see I've taken my two great vessels and I've mixed them together.

    02:55 Next is tricuspid atresia.

    02:58 Next is tetralogy of Fallot.

    03:01 And the last one is total anomalous pulmonary venous return.

    03:06 So that's a good trick to try and remember the five types of cyanotic heart disease.

    03:11 That's very likely to show up on your test.

    03:13 Also, remember those four findings in the tetralogy of Fallot.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) by Brian Alverson, MD is from the course Pediatric Cardiology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Prostaglandins
    2. Epinephrine drip
    3. Bicarb infusion
    4. Surfactant
    1. Supracardiac
    2. Infracardiac
    3. The right atrium
    4. Below the diaphragm
    5. At multiple levels

    Author of lecture Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

     Brian Alverson, MD

    Brian Alverson, MD

    Customer reviews

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    Great summary of most important info
    By Edel A. on 03. July 2020 for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

    High yield facts, great for closed book examinations. Loved the bonus mnemonic! Thank you for your work!

    Amazing teacher and lovely person!
    By Adrianna G. on 10. January 2020 for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

    Hello Doctor! I love listening your lessons, you truly inspired me. Good luck and HUGE THANK YOU!

    By Hind M. on 04. January 2020 for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

    Thanks for the hand trick. Amazing way to remember it helped me

    Fantastic explanation and crystal clear.
    By Paramjit V. on 21. November 2017 for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

    Awesome presentation. It is very explicit and concise. Even the books cannot explain it so well.