Now, we come to the temporal lobe. What you need to understand here is first, the primary
auditory cortex resides here. That is located right in through here. This is where we perceive
audition or hearing. A lesion that’s unilateral in its location causes the affected individual
to have difficulty localizing sound from opposite sound input. So if it’s on the left side,
our ability to hear is diminished. But on the right side, everything is processing just fine.
It also causes a subtle loss of hearing overall. You should also understand the middle
and inferior temporal gyri. Those are highlighted here in green. Here is the middle temporal
gyrus. Here is the inferior temporal gyrus. These are important in the imprinting or
establishment of long-term memory. If there are bilateral lesions of these gyri, this will produce
memory impairment of past events. Here, we have a medial view of the brain. Our focus is
on the parahippocampal gyrus of the temporal lobe. That is seen right in through here.
This is the area of the brain that’s involved in recent memories. If there are bilateral lesions
of your parahippocampal gyri, this will result in anterograde amnesia. Another region of the
temporal lobe that’s in the vicinity of the parahippocampal gyrus is the uncus shaded here
in green. This is involved functionally in olfaction, smell. Bilateral lesions of the unci
result in anosmia, inability to smell. Here, we’re looking at the occipitotemporal medial gyrus that
is shaded here in green. What you need to remember about this region of the temporal lobe
is it’s involved in face recognition. That allows us to identify individuals that we’ve had
contact with. A lesion of this area would result in face blindness, so we’d be unable
to recognize the faces of individuals. So, they would be like meeting that person
for the first time over and over again.
Wernicke's area is an important region of the temporal lobe. That is shown here in this area.
This is important in the comprehension of language.
So, it allows us to make sense of what we hear and what we read. A lesion will damage our ability
or inhibit our ability to comprehend language. As a result, an individual will have what is termed
receptive aphasia. Another term for this is fluent aphasia. So, they have the motor control
but the words they use would be like a solid mix. They don’t make sense
but the words themselves are produced perfectly."