Spinal Cord Pathology: Introduction

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    We will talk about spinal cord pathologies. Begin by looking at some etiologies. Trauma itself taking place resulting in spinal cord injury. What about extraspinal mass? What if there was a metastasis that was taking place to the bone? Maybe from the breast to the vertebrae, maybe from the prostate to the vertebrae, and therefore, causing injury to the spinal cord. Abscesses or hemorrhage even. Extraspinal mass is therefore causing spinal cord injury. Or intraspinal masses such as a hematoma or maybe perhaps even a tumor itself, intraspinal. Other causes. Inflammation referred to as being transverse myelitis, and of course, you’re quite familiar with the term myelo-. Nutritional deficiencies such as B12 deficiency. We’ll look at this with the megaloblastic anemia, resulting in what kind of issue? The neurologic deficit called subacute combined degeneration, right? And have ataxia due to spinocerebellar issues. I close my eyes and have positive Romberg sign because I have damage to the dorsal column, so on and so forth. Infection, such as tertiary syphilis may result in once again, damage to the dorsal column. We call this tabes dorsalis. Vascular, strokes, possibility, and AVM malformations. What if there was a spinal cord transection? What are the signs and symptoms that you can expect? Upper motor neuron signs below the level of lesion. What does that mean to you? Spastic paralysis and increased of reflexes, upper motor neuron below the level of the transection. Complete sensory loss below the level because you can’t make it up, right? So therefore, you have sensory loss below the level. Pay attention to the section and where it’s taking place. Bowel and bladder dysfunction. Look for incontinence. You may see lower motor neuron signs at the level of the lesion. Is that clear? So, at the level of the lesion,...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Spinal Cord Pathology: Introduction by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Spinal Cord Pathology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Spinal Cord Pathologies
    • Spinal Cord Transection: Symptoms
    • Brown-Sequard Syndrome
    • Central Cord Syndrome

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Dorsal column dysfunction
    2. Red nucleus dysfunction
    3. Ventral column dysfunction
    4. Olivary nucleus dysfunction
    5. Transverse column dysfunction
    1. Flaccid paralysis and decreased reflexes
    2. Upper motor neuron signs below the level of the lesion
    3. Complete sensory less below the level of the lesion
    4. Bowel and bladder dysfunction
    5. Lower motor neuron signs at the level of the lesion
    1. Syringomelia
    2. Brown - Sequard syndrome
    3. Anterior spinal artery syndrome
    4. Spinal cord transection
    5. Tabes dorsalis
    1. Left side loss of pain
    2. Right side loss of pain
    3. Right side loss of temperature
    4. Left side joint sensation loss
    5. Bowel and bladder dysfunction is common
    1. Arnold Chiari malformations
    2. Budd-Chiari syndrome
    3. Polycystic adult kidney disease
    4. Brown - Sequard syndrome
    5. Anterior spinal cord syndrome
    1. Since the dorsal columns are not involved.
    2. Since the corticospinal tracts are not involved.
    3. Since the dorsal root and horn are not involved.
    4. Since the central canal is not involved.
    5. Since the lateral columns are not involved.

    Author of lecture Spinal Cord Pathology: Introduction

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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