Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Locus of Control – Self-Concept, Self-Identity and Social Identity (PSY)

by Tarry Ahuja, PhD

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    00:00 There's three other influences that we’ll talk about that will impact your self-concept.

    00:07 We have Self-efficacy, which is the belief in one’s own competence and effectiveness.

    00:12 Like the name implies self-efficacy you’re taking about yourself, how good are you at the things that you do? This can vary task by task.

    00:21 You can be really great at drawing or organizing but you’re terrible at say Math and cooking.

    00:29 Self-efficacy is a blanket term that covers everything.

    00:33 It covers specific task and it can vary task by task, okay.

    00:37 Your Locus of control is our ability to control or influence outcomes and can be perceived as either internal or external.

    00:46 When an individual feels they have no control it is known as learned helplessness.

    00:51 Let’s break that down.

    00:52 What we’re saying here is if you are doing a task or if you doing something or you’re even just talking about your self-concept.

    01:01 Do you feel like you can control your future? Do you have control over what’s happening to you? There is two types of control.

    01:11 The internal situations would be, “I did really well on this MCAT exam because I’m smart, I studied, I work my ass off.

    01:20 That is why I've done so well on those exams.

    01:23 You were in control and that’s an internal control, okay.

    01:26 Now, the other option is say external, meaning this is outside factors.

    01:31 Things that you didn’t specifically have control over but the impact of the success of what you were doing.

    01:35 So you did amazing on the MCAT because, I don’t know, I guess I got lucky or the test was easy.

    01:43 Maybe there is two versions and this is an easier version, I don’t know.

    01:46 You’re not taking ownership of what’s happened.

    01:49 So a locus of control falls outside of you It’s external.

    01:53 And the scenario is when an individual feel like they had no control over what happened.

    01:58 and they were just throw in the situation. They did what they did.

    02:01 And whatever happened, happened.

    02:03 Now, that’s a little bit different than external because we’re not even saying that something outside influences.

    02:09 We don’t even know what influences. We don’t know what controlled this.

    02:12 And so an individual is said to have acquired learned helplessness.

    02:16 And at that point a lot of times, they’ll actually kind of give up.

    02:20 Even when control is returned where they do have the ability to either internally or externally control the situation.

    02:27 They will still lean on that learned helplessness saying, “I don’t even know”.

    02:31 So let’s go back to this study example.

    02:34 If you had good internal control, you would say, “I’m smart, I will study, I will do well.” That’s fairly obvious.

    02:41 External says, “Well, I’ll study but it’s kind of outside of my hands.

    02:46 It’s a test that they’re writing and I’m just going to write what they give me.

    02:51 And if I do well. Hopefully, I will get lucky.” that’s external.

    02:53 Learned helplessness means you go in, I’m not getting to bother studying 'cause, “You know what it’s not going to make a difference and who knows what’s going to happen.

    03:03 And I have no control over the situation.

    03:05 Now that’s a learned helplessness.

    03:07 Now, what if they say to you, “Well we can even provide you a study notes and we’ll give a tutor?” “Oh what’s the point. You know, whatever is going to happen is going to happen.

    03:16 I have no control. There is no control. You do what you got to do.” So this individual even though they now presented with options to gain some control they’re just washing their hand and bit of saying, “Well there's no point”.

    03:28 The last point is self-esteem.

    03:31 And this is overall self-evaluation of one’s self worth, self- efficacy and they can actually bolster your esteem.

    03:40 So you’ve heard of this term before, you have good self-esteem or almost confidence.

    03:45 and what you’re doing is your saying, “I am worth it. I am good.

    03:50 and that actually bolsters your efficacy.

    03:53 And so too much of this is actually not a good thing. And not enough of it is not a good thing either.

    04:01 So you might choose what you feel is an attribute they gives you self-esteem.

    04:07 And that’s linked to self-efficacy.

    04:09 So if you are really good or have good self-efficacy in a certain thing, Let’s say you’re quite bright.

    04:15 And that is why you want to go medical school 'cause you know that I can do well in the MCAT. I’m going to get a medical school. I can do this.

    04:22 you are quite confident in your abilities in terms of an intelligence and therefore your self-esteem is quite high in that area But you might say, “I’m kind of a bookworm and a Science nerd and I’m not a jock.

    04:36 So I’m kind of suck at basketball or running or I’m terrible at all sports.” And so your self-esteem in terms of athleticism is quite low.

    04:47 So you can actually have that disparity where you are really good at something intelligence.

    04:53 and so your esteem in that area is quite high but you are weak in other areas.

    04:57 So you can have a mix of both.

    05:00 This also can have higher self-efficacy.

    05:03 You’re great at something and you still have low esteem.

    05:06 you see this all the time using an example of a young woman who is beautiful and she could easily be a model but she does not have that belief that she's beautiful and so she has very low self-esteem.

    05:21 or somebody who is quite bright but doesn’t have that self-esteem despite the fact that they’re quite efficacious or have good self-efficacy than an intelligence area.

    05:33 They feel that they were not that bright.

    05:35 Maybe it is because they’ve been told so.

    05:37 Maybe it’s because at one point they’ve poor on an exam even though they are quite bright they don’t have that self-esteem and that’s linked to poor outcomes.

    05:47 So you can see how all these different variables will impact your overall identity.

    05:51 And it all shapes your self-concept or identity based on the different schemata as you might have.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Locus of Control – Self-Concept, Self-Identity and Social Identity (PSY) by Tarry Ahuja, PhD is from the course Self-Identity.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Learned helplessness
    2. Self-confidence
    3. Social identity
    4. Demoralization
    5. Conditioning
    1. Self-efficacy
    2. Self-concept
    3. Locus of control
    4. Confidence
    5. Intrinsic motivation
    1. Feeling that performance on a test depends on luck and the teacher
    2. Feeling that performance on a test depends on preparation
    3. Feeling that performance on a test can be predicted by one's previous performance
    4. Feeling a sense of accomplishment after doing well on a test
    5. Receiving candy after doing well on a test
    1. Self-esteem
    2. Poor self-efficacy
    3. Low outcome expectations
    4. Extrinsic motivation
    5. Complete social identity

    Author of lecture Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Locus of Control – Self-Concept, Self-Identity and Social Identity (PSY)

     Tarry Ahuja, PhD

    Tarry Ahuja, PhD

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