Seizures: Introduction

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    00:01 Let’s talk about seizures.

    00:04 So what is a seizure? A seizure is the clinical manifestation of abnormal excessive or synchronous discharges of neurons in the brain.

    00:14 It is paroxysmal, Intermittent activity that is usually self-limited and resolves after several seconds to a few minutes.

    00:21 The diagnosis of seizure is made by electroencephalogram, also known as an EEG test.

    00:27 This shows seizures by sustained, abnormal electrical activity.

    00:30 Focal seizures start in one region of the brain, and may or may not spread to neighboring brain regions.

    00:36 Generalized tonic-clonic seizures may evolve from a focal seizure or start as generalized.

    00:43 So once again, an abnormal hypersynchronous electrical discharge of neurons in the brain.

    00:50 It’s easy to read, but please understand the significance of it.

    00:55 So what’s an epilepsy? The tendency to experience recurrent, unprovoked seizures.

    01:01 The operative word, unprovoked seizures.

    01:04 Keep things simple.

    01:05 A seizure is a hypersynchronous type of electrical activity over a period of time, maybe minutes, whereas epilepsy would be unprovoked type of seizure by the definition.

    01:15 Once you get the definitions down, obviously, we’re going to get into further details.

    01:19 Generalized seizures originate at some point within, and rapidly engage “bilateral” neuronal networks.

    01:26 These bilateral networks can include cortical and subcortical structures, but in no way mean it includes the whole brain. The keyword here is “bilateral” in origin. Because the seizures originate from a bilateral network, the symptoms can be different from one seizure to another.

    01:44 and you can have primary generalization.

    01:47 You can have secondary but at this point, current day practice, we don’t really talk about this so much, huh? But our focus will be on primary generalization with secondary.

    01:57 But what we’ll do is, we’ll get into focal, meaning to say, you have focal portions of the brain, most commonly, the medial temporal lobe.

    02:07 Then at some point, a focal then can go on to secondary generalization.

    02:13 Focal seizures originate within a network limited to one hemisphere. Keyword here is “one hemisphere”.

    02:21 Secondary generalization means that at a later stage in the seizure, there is involvement of both hemispheres.

    02:28 “Bilateral”.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Seizures: Introduction by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Seizures.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Epilepsy
    2. Focal seizures
    3. Primary generalized seizures
    4. Secondary generalized seizures
    5. Partial seizures
    1. A focal seizure progressing to a generalized one is known as a secondary generalized seizure.
    2. Recurrent provoked seizures are known as epilepsy.
    3. Seizures are always generalized.
    4. Focal and partial seizures are not related to each other.
    5. A provoked seizure such as one due to alcohol withdrawal is a form of epilepsy.

    Author of lecture Seizures: Introduction

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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    By Kelly P. on 26. November 2019 for Seizures: Introduction

    I like that is the most precise information that you might need for solving clinical cases later in practice

    Best MD teacher.
    By Cant s. on 09. January 2018 for Seizures: Introduction

    This taught me... I was wondering one day while I was reading a Medical book, hmm what are seizures? Then I was looking all over the web found this website and went to Carlo Raj, MD for seizures this is just the beginning for me and I hope I like the rest of his videos.