Safety Across the Lifespan – Patient Safety (Nursing)

by Christy Davidson

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    00:00 Welcome back, everyone.

    00:02 One critical element of the nursing profession is always safety.

    00:07 In this presentation, we're going to be discussing Safety Across the Lifespan.

    00:12 As we've discussed in different episodes, safety is a fundamental basic human need.

    00:20 And when you think about safety and injury prevention, safety is a primary concern of nurses.

    00:26 Always.

    00:27 But despite our attentiveness, accidents can't be totally avoided.

    00:31 Accidents, however, are usually caused by human conduct, so accidents can be prevented.

    00:38 The first classification that we want to talk about, of course, is the newborn.

    00:42 In the newborn, this first year of life is prone to accidents.

    00:46 It's not surprising that accidents are the leading cause of death and infants.

    00:50 Being dependent on others for care and them being oblivious to hints of danger make them very vulnerable to injuries.

    00:57 Now, some common accidents during infancy, include burns, choking, and suffocation, falls, and poisoning.

    01:03 Now, here's how nurses and parents alike can promote a safe environment for newborns and infants.

    01:10 First, use a federally-approved car seat at all times.

    01:13 It should be in the back seat facing backward.

    01:16 Never leave an infant unattended on a raised surface.

    01:21 They don't have the ability to protect themselves.

    01:23 They could easily roll off a high surface.

    01:26 Check the temperature of the baby's bath water and their formula prior to using to avoid accidental burns.

    01:33 Hold the infant upright during the feeding.

    01:35 Do not prop the bottle, cut the food into small pieces, and don't feed the infant peanuts or popcorn because these very small pieces of food can get lodged very easily in their throat.

    01:47 Also, provide soft toys with no small detachable or sharp-edged parts that could accidentally cut them or become loose, and actually possibly choke on them if they're too small.

    01:58 You also want to cover electric outlets.

    02:01 Be sure to coil any cords and make sure that they are out of reach.

    02:04 Place plants, household cleaners, and waste baskets out of reach, so that there's anything in there that an infant or a toddler could get into, we make sure that they avoid that.

    02:15 And, lastly, lock away any potential poisons such as medicines, paints, and gasolines, because these are known poisons to infants.

    02:24 The next age group are toddlers.

    02:26 Toddlerhood, years of curiosity.

    02:28 Therefore, toddlers really feel and taste anything that interests them.

    02:32 Nurses that work closely with toddlers and parents who are raising a toddler know all too well that these children need constant supervision and protection.

    02:40 Their experience in the world and are usually fascinated by pools and busy streets, too, which are just some of the most common potential dangers.

    02:48 So here are some strategies that nurses can help keep toddlers safe.

    02:52 Be sure to continue using federally-approved car seats at all times.

    02:56 Place the children in the back seat when traveling in a car.

    03:00 Teach children not to put things in your mouth including pills that is unless administered by a parents.

    03:07 Also, keep objects with sharp edges, such as furniture and knives out of children's reach, so that they won't accidentally cut themselves or impale themselves.

    03:15 Be sure to place hot pots on the back burners with handles turned inward.

    03:21 That way as toddlers are getting a little bit taller and they're starting to explore their area, their little hands when they go to reach up on the stove are not able to hit the hot burners and not able to grab the handles and pull hot liquids off on them accidentally.

    03:35 Keep cleaning solutions, insecticides, and medicines in locked cupboards to avoid any type of accidental poison exposure.

    03:44 You also want to supervise toddlers in the tub.

    03:46 They're very active.

    03:47 So you never want to leave them alone in case they were to be playful and, perhaps, hit their head and go into an accidental drowning situation.

    03:55 Also, obtain a low-lying bed when the child begins to climb.

    03:59 If they're in a crib and they become very active, it's very easy for them to climb out of a very tall crib and actually fall to the floor.

    04:06 As they start that phase, be sure to get the low-lying beds, so that they don't have as far to fall.

    04:11 Also, you want to cover outlets with safety covers or plugs because, again, as they begin to explore, they might take anything from a paper clip to a penny, to any type of small object just to see what happens when they put it into an electrical outlet.

    04:24 So keep them covered.

    04:27 The next age are preschoolers.

    04:29 Children in this age are usually really active that are often pretty clumsy.

    04:34 This is the perfect age for safety education.

    04:36 For example, crossing the streets, the meaning of the traffic signals, or even how to ride a bike.

    04:41 Careful surveillance must continue because preschoolers are still not really self-reliant in matters of safety.

    04:47 Their cognitive and their motor skills are increasing quickly, so safety measures should keep up with the acquisition of these new skills.

    04:54 So here are some strategies to keep preschoolers safe: Don't allow children to run with candy or other objects in the mouth.

    05:02 That could cause an accidental perforation if they were to fall, say, on a sucker with a stick.

    05:08 Secondly, teach children not to put small objects in the mouth, in the nose, or the ears where they might get stuck.

    05:15 It may not be able to come out very easily.

    05:17 You also want to remove doors from any unused equipment such as a refrigerator.

    05:21 For example, if you have an old refrigerator or a freezer outside that you're no longer using, when you take the door off, that eliminates the possibility that the child during their exploration may go playing and get locked in there and suffocate.

    05:34 You always want to supervise preschoolers in crossing streets and begin safety teaching about obeying traffic signals and looking both ways.

    05:42 Also, teach children to play in safe areas, teach them about the dangers of playing with matches, and playing your charcoal, fire, and any heating appliances to avoid accidental burns.

    05:53 You also want to teach children to avoid strangers and keep parents informed of their whereabouts.

    05:59 And, finally, teach preschoolers not to walk in front of swings and not to accidentally push others off playground equipment where accidents can be caused there as well.

    06:10 The next age group, school-age children.

    06:12 Children at this stage really now are able to think before they act.

    06:16 They're sensitive to peer pressure, but they're also responding to rules which is great.

    06:22 They like fantasy and magical thinking and they're usually known for imitating adult actions.

    06:27 They're especially prone to injuries caused by outdoor activities and recreational equipment.

    06:31 So here are some strategies to keep school-aged children safe: You want to teach safety rules for recreational and sports activities.

    06:38 For example, never swim alone, always wear a life jacket in a boat, and wear a helmet and protective pads as needed for contact sports.

    06:46 Supervised contact sports and activities in which children aim out of target, so that someone may not accidentally get hit.

    06:54 You also want to teach children's safe ways to use a stove, garden tools, and other equipment.

    07:00 Again, they're imitating adult behavior and this is-- These are the ways that they learn.

    07:04 But at the same time, you want to make sure that they're doing it safely.

    07:07 Also, teach children not to play with fireworks, gunpowder, or firearms.

    07:12 Teach the children the health hazards of smoking.

    07:16 If you smoke, now is a great time to stop.

    07:19 Be a role model for your child.

    07:20 And finally, teach children the effects of drugs and alcohol on judgment and coordination.

    07:27 The next age group, adolescents.

    07:29 A teenager's level of responsibility, their common sense, and the ability to resist peer pressure should be assessed.

    07:35 This is also the time when some can obtain their driver's license.

    07:38 Other than that, sports injuries, suicide, and, unfortunately, homicide are just some of the safety threats nurses and parents should be concerned when dealing with adolescents.

    07:47 So here are some strategies to help: Have adolescents complete a driver's education course and take practice drives with them in various kinds of weather to make sure that you feel comfortable that they know how to navigate some of the common challenges in inclement weather.

    08:00 Set firm limits on automobile use, for example.

    08:04 Never drive under the influence of drug and alcohol.

    08:06 If they're just learning, you may also want to set the limit of only driving with an adult in the car, rather than their friends to minimize the distractions.

    08:15 Encourage the use of proper equipment when participating in sports.

    08:19 You also want to teach safety measures for the use of power tools.

    08:24 You want to inform adolescents of the dangers of drugs, alcohol, and unprotected sex.

    08:30 Include teaching about date rape prevention and defense.

    08:34 You want to watch out for mood and behavior changes at this age group, right? Because they definitely are having some hormonal shifts.

    08:41 So it's important to maintain open communication with adolescents.

    08:45 And finally, set a good example of behavior for the adolescent that they can follow.

    08:51 The next age group, young adults.

    08:53 Now this age group is especially at risk for vehicle accidents, suicide, and exposure to natural radiation, drowning, and firearms.

    09:01 Now, we can foster safety by remembering a few things.

    09:04 Reinforce motor vehicle safety.

    09:07 Remind to repair any potential fire hazards, such as any kind of broken electrical wiring.

    09:14 You want to discuss evaluating the possibility of workplace injuries or even death while making specific career decisions.

    09:21 You want to discuss avoiding excess sun radiation and making sure that they use protection when they go out into the sun.

    09:28 You also want to encourage those who are unable to cope to be able to seek counseling for help.

    09:33 The next age group, middle-aged adults.

    09:36 Now the injury rate of middle-aged adults are affected by changing physiological factors and personal and work-related responsibilities.

    09:43 Now here's how we can help them protect themselves.

    09:46 Again, always reinforce motor vehicle safety.

    09:51 Make certain stairways are well lighted and uncluttered to avoid any unnecessary accidents.

    09:57 you want to equip bathrooms with hand grasps and non-skid bath mats.

    10:02 As the middle-aged adults are getting a little older, sometimes their reflexes aren't as great, so this will certainly help minimize any accidents in the bathroom.

    10:10 You want to test smoke detectors and fire alarms regularly.

    10:14 And finally, you want to follow safety precautions when using any type of machinery.

    10:19 The next age group and the final age group actually, older adults.

    10:23 Now one of the major concerns in taking care of elders is injury prevention.

    10:27 Now they are particularly at risk for accidents and injuries because of their limited vision, their slow reflexes, and their brittle bones.

    10:34 So simple activities like climbing stairs and driving a car would really require a lot from them They have failing memories and then are often prone to wandering.

    10:43 So some strategies to help them include the following: You want to ensure their eyeglasses are functional.

    10:49 We know that their eyesight is diminishing, So make sure that they have regular checkups and their eyeglasses are the right prescription and that they're working.

    10:56 Similarly, if they wear a hearing aid, make sure it's functioning as well, so they're able to hear you.

    11:01 You want to ensure appropriate lighting.

    11:04 Even if their glasses work really well, sometimes they can't see very well if it's not lit.

    11:08 Make sure you have great lights.

    11:10 You want to keep environment tidy and uncluttered, especially for the older adults who might have difficulty walking or maybe they're using a walker.

    11:18 Anything that's in their way could definitely contribute to an accident.

    11:21 You want to mark doorways and edges of steps as needed because if a doorway or, say, a stair is the same color as each other, sometimes it's hard for them to see.

    11:32 So you want to make sure that you mark them clearly so that they know that they're going into a doorway or sometimes that the next step is available to them.

    11:39 And you want them to wear shoes or well-fitted slippers with non-skid soles.

    11:44 Again, the reflexes aren't very good.

    11:46 Sometimes it's very difficult for them to ambulate.

    11:48 Having these non-skid grips on the bottoms of their shoes and socks can really help them avoid unintentional falls.

    11:57 You also want to provide assistance with ambulation as needed.

    12:00 Sometimes they need help.

    12:01 So just having someone hold their arm can go a long way to helping them walk clearly.

    12:06 You want to monitor gait and balance as well as activity tolerance.

    12:09 They could get tired pretty easily.

    12:11 So you also want to monitor their orientation and their alertness status.

    12:16 You want to keep the bed in the lowest position possible.

    12:19 Again, for if any reason, they were to try to get up on their own or maybe fall, at least they don't have as far to go if they do fall than if the bed was in a higher position.

    12:27 So always when you leave the room, make sure that the bed is in a low position.

    12:31 Install grab bars in the bathroom and also provide a raised toilet seat.

    12:35 This really helps older patients meet them where they are and minimizes the opportunity for accidents or falls or slips in the bathroom.

    12:44 And finally, encourage annual or more frequent review of all medications as prescribed.

    12:50 We know as older adults, they many times go to several different physicians, and sometimes have their prescriptions filled at different pharmacies.

    12:58 It's really important that everyone understands exactly what medications they're on to ensure that there's no duplication or maybe that they're not taking medications they don't need anymore.

    13:08 So, as we've discussed today, nurses are critical in ensuring environments are safe and providing important education to patients of all ages.

    13:17 So what do we learn today? The first year of life is prone to accidents which really are the leading cause of deaths in infants.

    13:24 Toddlerhood, years of curiosity.

    13:26 Therefore, toddlers really are gonna feel and taste anything that interests them.

    13:31 Preschoolers are really usually active, but sometimes very clumsy.

    13:36 This is really the perfect age to talk about safety education.

    13:39 School-aged kids are especially prone to injuries caused by outdoor activities and recreational equipment.

    13:46 Now teenagers levels of responsibility, their common sense, and their ability to resist peer pressure should be assessed at that stage.

    13:53 Young adults, especially at risk for vehicle accidents, suicide, and exposure to natural radiation, drowning, and firearms The injury rate of middle-aged adults really affected by, remember, they're changing physiological factors and their personal and work-related responsibilities.

    14:10 And, again, one of the major concerns in taking care of elders, injury prevention.

    14:14 They're really at risk for accidents and injuries because of their limited vision, their slow reflexes, and, again, they're brittle bones.

    14:21 So I hope you've enjoyed this presentation on Safety Across the Lifespan.

    14:25 Thanks so much for watching.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Safety Across the Lifespan – Patient Safety (Nursing) by Christy Davidson is from the course Health Care Organizations (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Newborns
    2. Toddlers
    3. Teenagers
    4. Elders
    1. Curiosity
    2. Bravery
    3. Imagination
    4. Cautiousness
    1. Preschoolers
    2. Toddlers
    3. Teenagers
    4. Young adults
    1. Teenagers
    2. School-aged children
    3. Young adults
    4. Middle-aged people
    1. Young adults and middle-aged adults
    2. Teenagers and older adults
    3. Young adults and older adults
    4. Teenagers and middle-aged people
    1. Injury prevention
    2. Choking
    3. Motor vehicle driving
    4. Firearm use

    Author of lecture Safety Across the Lifespan – Patient Safety (Nursing)

     Christy Davidson

    Christy Davidson

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