Reasoning Within the Text: Learning Outcomes

by Lincoln Smith

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    00:01 Let's summarize the learning outcomes you should be familiar with, having completed the series of lectures on reasoning within the text questions.

    00:10 First, you should be able to define the structure and function of a reasoning within the text question.

    00:15 You should also be able to distinguish these question types from the first types we've discussed, foundations of comprehension.

    00:23 You should be able to take the same claim within a passage and to evaluate differently based on how a question stem directs you to do so.

    00:31 In order to do that, you should also be able to see when evidence has been presented by an author as opposed to when an author simply gives his or her own opinion.

    00:43 In line with this, you should be able to evaluate faulty sequences of cause and effect.

    00:50 An author needs to be accountable to basic laws of causality.

    00:54 As we read a CARS passage, we should be able to trace out tenuous connections across wide distances in a CARS passage just like we would in a verbal conversation on a daily basis.

    01:08 You should be able to determine an author's message, purpose, position, or point of view.

    01:14 And from there, infer their beliefs, assumptions, and biases because like CARS, authors are people.

    01:23 A big clue for all of these things is tone and mental imagery. These will really help you out a lot to infer a position of an author.

    01:34 We should be able to use the same tools of evaluating verbal claim in a conversation to evaluate written claims in a CARS passage.

    01:45 You should evaluate the sources within a CARS passage and ensure that they are both credible and objective.

    01:52 You should be able to identify when authors seem to be objective but are really expressing their own opinion through the mouthpiece of an external authority.

    02:05 Last but not least, you should be able to separate your own opinion from an author, place yourself into the perspective of the arguer that the author presents and evaluate from that perspective, arguments in the context of fundamental rules of logic which still need to be adhered to.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Reasoning Within the Text: Learning Outcomes by Lincoln Smith is from the course CARS Theoretical Foundations.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Independent research of common heuristics/rules of thumb/logical fallacies
    2. Holding an author rigorously accountable to rules of logic based on the context of the arguer
    3. Evaluating whether a CARS passage is cohesive with respect to itself and the sum of its parts
    4. Applying fundamental tools of verbal argument evaluation to CARS passage argument evaluation
    5. Proactively using your opinion to answer questions

    Author of lecture Reasoning Within the Text: Learning Outcomes

     Lincoln Smith

    Lincoln Smith

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