So, let’s take a look at
how in certain situations
attitudes can better
predict your behavior.
So, the first is when social
influence is reduced or removed.
So, you’re actually removed from sort of
responsibility and less social judgment.
So say, for example, if you’re
at a table with your peers
and they’re asking whether or not you should
kick one of your friends out of group.
Okay. And they’re like, “You know
what, Tom, I’m not a big fun of Tom.
Should we kick him out?
Let’s have a vote.”
And sitting around a table,
you have to say yay or nay.
Tom in or is Tom
out of the group?
Now, at that point, everybody
knows what your vote is.
And so you have that
sense of responsibility.
And so your attitude is influenced
by that sense of responsibility.
So socially because you’re identified,
you might act the certain way.
Now, flip that and let’s say, in
private, on this piece of paper,
we’re going to scribble down
what you think and we’re
going to put it in a bowl
and then we’re going to
tally up the results and
that’s when will decide
whether or not Tom can stay
or he’s out of our group.
In that point, you might be
much more honest and you
might actually truly express
your real behavior,
sort of attitude towards this vote
as opposed to the attitude that
you might have to express outwardly
because of that responsibility.
Now, other way is this
general pattern of behavior.
And here, what we’re saying is there’s
an aggregate or average behavior.
So, for example, let’s say
trying to be healthy.
If you say, you know what? I think that
I’m trying to healthier in my life.
Now, that’s your
And so, your general behavior might
be, “Typically, I try to do good.”
And so you hear people saying
this, “How do you eat?”
“Well, generally, I’m
a pretty good eater.”
So what does that mean?
That means, well, the
bulk of the time
their behavior reflects their
attitude of being pretty healthy.
Does that mean that they’re
not going to go out and
have a big bowl of ice cream
with their girlfriend?
Of course not.
Of course they’re going to
indulge once in awhile.
But generally speaking, their pattern of
behavior will reflect their overall attitude.
Another one is a more
If you really want to see
how healthy somebody is,
you would ask him point black
some specific situations and say,
“Okay, specifically, do
you eat cheesecake?”
And if your answer is, “Well,
yeah, sometimes I do.”
That means that you have a certain
attitude towards healthiness versus,
“Hey, do you ever
“Oh never, I wouldn’t
touch cheesecake ever
because my body is a temple and I am
the healthiest eater you’ve ever met.”
I now understand their behavior
much more specifically
than if I was asking that
general pattern of behavior.
And the last one is something called
“self-reflection or self-awareness”.
And this reminds
us of our beliefs.
And it allows us to align ourselves
and our attitudes with our behavior.
So, think of a scenario
when you’re maybe at a --
at an honest open bar scenario where
you’re supposed to help yourself,
and based on what you take,
you put $5 into the till.
Now, if there’s no mirror,
there’s nobody around,
you might have four, five
drinks and only pay for one.
Now, all of a sudden, if there’s a camera or
if there’s a mirror, and all of a sudden,
you’re forced to kind of
look at your actions and be
what you’re doing.
You’re going to have that
sense of responsibility.
You’re much more self-aware of what
you’re doing and you have that ownership.
You take that ownership and
typically, your attitudes,
your behavior reflect your
attitude a little bit better.
Okay. So let’s take a look
at some examples where
behavior can actually precede
and affect our attitude.
So, there are certain situations
where your behavior can actually
change more and
transition your attitude.
So, one example is role playing.
So this brings us back to the
classic Zimbardo prison study
where we took a cohort of
students and we separated them.
Half of them were assigned the
role of being a prison guard
and the other half resides being
the actual prison inmates.
And what they did
was, these are --
they weren’t in real life
prisoners or prison guards,
they were just assigned that role
in this role playing experiment.
And what they realized was that
slowly, actually fairly quickly,
these individuals started to blur their
reality and started to act like prison guards
and the prisoner started
acting like prisoners
and they started
taking on those roles.
The prisoners were being more
deviant and not listening,
and they’re having to be
disciplined by the prison guards
who are more than happy to give
them their daily beatings.
And, you know, this is all
because of them role playing.
So, their behavior started to
change their actual attitudes.
Another scenario is public
declarations and this is when
an individual will actually
declare their beliefs
and then their attitudes
actually start to
catch up to what they’ve
So I think the easy example is
when you look at politicians.
We happen to be in the middle of a U.S.
political debate right
now and a political run with
Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton.
And every day you put on the news and
you see these individuals making --
professing their claims
on certain things.
Let’s say, for example,
their stance on abortion.
So, they may understand that the bulk
of their voters are, say, for abortion
or pro-choice or whatever it
might be, have a certain stance.
They might be kind of, “Well, I don’t
have a strong stance on either.
My attitudes are sort of,
well, I’m not sure.”
But they know that their voters,
the bulk of their voters, are
thinking are certain way.
They might publicly declare and say,
“Our party and I stand for pro-choice.”
And internally, really, they’re
kind of up in the air about it.
But they professed it.
They publicly declared
that they are pro-choice.
And as a result, the voters were
like, “Awesome! I think Tarry is
amazing because he’s pro-choice, I’m
pro-choice. I’m voting for him.”
Now, through the process
of public declaration
and having to follow
up with that, as they
continue to speak about
it or quiz about it,
they’re like, “Tarry, are
you really pro-choice?”
“Oh yeah, I said it on the news
and I mean it. I am pro-choice.”
And other debates will happen and now they’re
having to, say, defend their stance.
And I’m having to say, “Well, I’m
pro-choice for the following reasons.”
And at a debate, they’re like, “Tarry,
you’re an idiot for being pro-choice.”
Well, I’m actually not an
idiot because the recent
number show this and
current views are that.
And now all of a sudden, I
start to shift my views to
align with what I’ve actually,
So before this whole exercise, I
may have been ambivalent about it.
But by the end, I am
actually really pro-choice.
And so, that’s a situation
where my behavior of
publicly declaring has
influenced my attitude.
Here’s another great
scenario and that’s where
we’re looking at
justification and effort.
So, consider the notion that behavior
sometimes precedes and affects are attitudes,
so the A, B, C.
And in certain situations, behavior
can influence our attitude.
So, if I’m putting a lot of
work into what I’m doing,
so a lot of effort is contributed to behavior,
that’s going to influence my attitude.
Let’s take a look
at you right now.
You’re sitting here,
watching these videos of me.
Okay. I don’t know how
exciting that can be.
And in front of you is a
book, an MCAT prep book,
and you’ve been doing this
day after day after day.
You’re busting your hump
to go and write this exam.
You’re going to ace that exam.
And then you’re going to go and
do years and years of school.
And then you’re going
to go and get in to a
hospital and then you
can do your residency.
And then you’re going to be
at the very end where they
finally shake your hand and
say, “Good job, you’re
now a doctor and you’re
going to be a rock star,
you’re going to make lots
of money and save lives.”
That’s about to happen to you.
But at the very end, right when
you’re almost done, you realize that
you’re just too good-looking to
not share your body with others
and you really want to pursue a
dance and being an exotic dancer.
And you say to yourself, “Well,
should I become an exotic dancer, or do
I actually follow through on becoming
a world renowned doctor because of all
the effort that I’ve put in to this?”
And so now, the effort that I’ve put in is
actually shaping your attitude as opposed to
which you really want to do which is dance,
make a lot of money and make people happy.
So you go and you follow
the rule of becoming a
doctor because of the effort
that you put in to it.
So it’s a situation where the
effort is contributing to
the behavior that’s going
to influence your attitude.
Now, let’s take a look
at another scenario.
And this might be something that, you
know, sneaky parents try to do sometimes.
And this is a
And this is where you entice an individual
with small actions or simple behaviors
to basically get their foot in the door,
and eventually because they’ve logged
in to some of that work and their behavior
is now slowly starting to be shifted,
by the end, they actually have a
strong attitude towards the task.
So, let me put that into a concrete
example and in English for you.
So back to this whole
MCAT school scenario.
Maybe when you were
younger, you were saying,
“You know what? I want
to be an artist, Mom.”
Or, “I want to be
a dancer, Mom.”
And your mom says, “Well, you know what?
There’s not a lot future
in that and you really don’t
have the legs to be a dancer.
So why don’t you just go and do a
semester at university and after that,
if you want, you can go and
travel the world or you
can follow up at dance school
and see how that goes.”
So you say to yourself, “All right, I promise
my mom a year at school and I’ll go.”
So you’ve got your
foot in the door.
So you go to school,
you’re registered for
your classes, and you
realized, “You know what?
I really didn’t think I
like school but I kind of
like school and I’ve
already logged in a year.
I might as well just keep going.
And you know, I really like
this whole biology thing or
neuroscience is really tickling my fancy.
I think I’m going to do that.”
Next thing you know, you’ve become
a PhD in neuroscience, okay?
And that was because you’ve
got your foot in the
door and you’re enticing to
doing something and that
slowly, that behavior of
getting started has impacted
your ultimate attitude
towards being in school.