Principle of Justice

by Mark Hughes, MD, MA

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    00:01 The last principle we'll think about is justice.

    00:04 So, here, we're thinking about rules and rights.

    00:08 So, are there particular rules society has set up that you should follow? Or are there, you know, fundamental rights that people are owed and we should fulfill make sure they have those rights respected? Philosophers over time have thought about justice in a variety of ways.

    00:27 The first idea is formal justice.

    00:30 So, what is each person according to their due, what do they owe from society? You could think about, you know, the person most in need.

    00:41 That's their due so they should get, you know, whatever the resources.

    00:46 Other people have said well, you know, based on merit.

    00:50 You know, so what if they contributed to society.

    00:52 That's how they should, you know, get the resource.

    00:57 The next type of justice is called community justice.

    00:59 So that is very much sort of the contractual agreement.

    01:03 So, when 2 people come together and they're interacting, what would be a fair way for them to interact with each other? That's commutative justice.

    01:13 Most people are generally, you know, thinking about retributive justice.

    01:17 So, you know, that's the legal system so when crimes are committed, we have a system of justice to say that, you know, the legal system should step in and give retribution when there have been wrongs created.

    01:34 Generally in healthcare, we think about justice in terms of distributive justice.

    01:39 So, we have resources, you know all the medical treatments we can offer.

    01:44 You know, healthcare in general and how are we distributing those across society both fairly and with equity.

    01:53 Are there some segments of society that are deprived of these resources which would be unjust? Are others taking advantage of them? Again, that would be unjust if it's to the disfavor of other groups.

    02:09 And then lastly, especially in more recent years, we have had appeals to social justice.

    02:15 Our societal structures set up fairly.

    02:18 Are there historic underpinnings for why the rules that have been set up in the system may be unfair to certain groups and certain populations? That's social justice.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Principle of Justice by Mark Hughes, MD, MA is from the course Introduction to Clinical Ethics.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Distributive justice
    2. Formal justice
    3. Commutative justice
    4. Retributive justice
    5. Major justice

    Author of lecture Principle of Justice

     Mark Hughes, MD, MA

    Mark Hughes, MD, MA

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