Hi, welcome to our pharmacology video series.
Now in this one, we're gonna take a look at pain meds
and these are over-the-counter, for the most part, NSAIDs.
Now, most nursing students in America either have some of these
in their backpack or in your purse, you've always got these with you.
I wanna walk you through learning a little bit more on how these actually work.
So first we have to start with what is Cox and what does it do?
Well, Cox, you'll see that cool drawing over there. It looks pretty complicated, isn't it?
Well, Cox is short for cyclooxygenase. Okay, so it's an enzyme.
We know that it ends in A-S-E, so most words ending in -ase tells us it's an enzyme that breaks things down.
Well, this particular enzyme, Cox, it converts that acid into prostanoids.
Now, why did I say that acid? Cuiz it kind of reminds me of arachnids or spiders.
I don't even like saying it. But it converts that acid into prostanoids.
Well, what are prostanoids? They're prostaglandins and some other compounds.
So Cox helps us have prostanoids or what will be prostaglandins and some other stuff.
That's the most important point here so make sure you got that clear before we go on.
Now, Cox has two forms: Cox-1 and Cox-2. Pretty simply named, right?
So we've started talking about NSAIDs and Cox.
Now, NSAIDs stands for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
That's what NSAIDs are.
And we're gonna talk about how Cox plays a role in these medications or doesn't.
So we've got Cox, it's an enzyme, it helps us convert that acid into prostanoids
which gives us prostaglandins and some other compounds.
There's two forms of it: Cox-1 and Cox-2.
Okay, so we've got these up here for you to see.
At the end of Cox-1 in that process, we end up with thromboxane.
Now if I have a Cox-1 inhibitor, I have less Cox-1 available, right?
That enzyme can't make the transformation so I have less thromboxane which means I'm less likely to clot.
Thromboxane helps us build clots so with Cox-1 inhibitor,
that will deal with having less clotting ability.
That's the effect it will cause. Now, a Cox-2 inhibitor, that's another side.
You're still on the other side. We're gonna end up with less ATL.
Now you see what that spells. Aspirin-triggered lipoxin, right?
With less Cox-2, I'm gonna have less ATL.
Now that's what gives us the anti-inflammation that most of us are after when we take an NSAID.
Okay, so that's the rule of Cox-1, that's the rule of Cox-2,
now we're gonna talk about what happens with Cox inhibitors because NSAIDs are Cox inhibitors.
So that means the cyclooxygenase, we shorten it to Cox,
cyclooxygenase inhibitors include aspirins and related drugs.
Now, that's an important point.
You know what NSAIDs are, we've introduced you to Cox-1 and 2,
we know the end result of that is we can get prostaglandins and some other compounds.
We know that Cox-1, if I have less of that, I'm gonna have less thromboxane
which makes clots and I'm gonna have -- and so I'm gonna bleed more easily, right?
I'm not gonna clot as easily. Cox-2, I'm gonna end up with that anti-inflammation
because I'm gonna have increased levels of ATL. Okay, so you got it. You're with us.
NSAIDs are Cox inhibitors that's why we spend time looking at Cox-1 and 2
but what NSAIDs are available over the counter?
Oh, I know you know the answer to this one, right?
Aspirin. Remember, aspirin and aspirin-related are considered NSAIDs.
So aspirin, like Bayer, Bufferin, Excedrin, you may have seen those names before.
But we talk about ibuprofen. Now, there's brand names.
Advil, Motrin, you may have heard those names but ibuprofen is an NSAID.
Now finally as my personal favorite, naproxen or other ways marketed as Aleve.
These are examples of NSAIDs that are available over the counter. So how do we use them?
What are the therapeutic effects of NSAIDs?
Well, usually when I'm using one, it's to relieve pain.
That's what I'm going for and the next one, suppressing inflammation.
Now they can also be used to reduce fever but usually when I'm going in for NSAIDs,
it's the pain and inflammation.