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Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    00:01 Welcome to neoplasia. What does that mean to you? Proliferation of cells.

    00:07 Means that the cell is going to remain witin the cell cycle for a long period of time.

    00:12 And depending as to it's behaviour may then go on to be more benign in nature or malignant By the time we are done with this particular section, you'll have then become an expert in basics of neoplasia.

    00:26 Neoplasia. New growth, not reversible. It is a key. Even with benign, remember.

    00:34 If a cell undergoes increased mitotic rate at some point in time within that cell cycle, meaning to say that you are in the M phase, very difficult to reverse that.

    00:45 Dysplasia, very important topic. For example, let's say that you have a organ, that has undergone hyperplasia. At any point of time with hyperplasia, which means increased number, right? And one would think with hyperplasia that there might not be a tendency of going on to neoplasia.

    01:08 That is incorrect. For example, if there is endometrial hyperplasia that might be taking place in a patient That there is possibility of endometrial hyperplasia and then concerning of endometrial cancer.

    01:35 But it's not like hyperplasia went in to cancer, right? It has to go through a period of dysplasia.

    01:41 So, put things into perspective. Or, for example, you have heard of HPV.

    01:48 And you have heard of high risk strains 16, 18, 31, 33.

    01:52 And you should be thinking about the cervix. And with the cervix, in the developing country in the world, cervical cancer is a pretty big deal. But before it went into cervical cancer, what kind of changes did the cell of the cervix undergo? CIN I, CIN II, CIN III. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, we have to call this dysplasia. So dysplasia is not neoplasia as of yet but my goodness is it close.

    02:22 And you, as a clinician, you hear the term dysplasia, you're absolutely worried about your patient going on to cancer.

    02:29 It's disordered growth which is reversible but unfortunately may result in neoplasia.

    02:35 As a rule of thumb, as far as you are concerned, even with the most severe or serious type of dysplasia in cervix, let's say CIN III. With that high grade type of dysplasia, it still would take approximately a decade for that dysplasia to go on to cancer. Keep that in mind.

    02:55 Dysplasia is a very important topic for us. What is a tumor? A tumor is swelling. In basics, with tumor hemodynamics we talked about histamine causing, tumor.

    03:10 How was that possible? Histamine caused vasodilation therefore bringing about enlargement.

    03:16 In this case, with basic neoplasia we are dealing with increased proliferation of cells, therefore we have a tumor. And the behaviour of that tumor can be either benign or malignant.

    03:28 We will be spending time with that. Now, before we move on though, the other point of demarcation here would be, malignant and metastasis. Just because you have a cancer or a neoplasia that is malignant, you are one step closer to perhaps metastasis but malignant, We will talk further about this. And then we have actual cancer.

    04:01 Cancer would be malignant neoplasia. For example, if you had renal cell carcinoma or colorectal cancer so on and so forth. And then with this type of cancer you are worried about the membrane rupturing and What I mean by that is, you have ruptured the membrane, you have entered the highway and that highway means to say either the lymphatic or perhaps hematogeneous spread.

    04:23 And once that happens, then my goodness you are going to have spread of that cancer, well step by step by step. Regional lymph nodes. From the regional lymph nodes it might then go on to further lymph nodes and before you know it there is widespread metastasis.

    04:45 organ is not primary. It will be metastasis from a primary.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Cellular Pathology: Basic Principles.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Dysplasia
    2. Tumor
    3. Neoplasia
    4. Malignant Neoplasia
    5. Cancer
    1. An increased proliferation of cells
    2. Malignant neoplasia
    3. Cancerous
    4. Dysplastic
    5. Always benign
    1. Neoplasia leading to tumor
    2. Hematogenous spread
    3. Lymphatic spread
    4. Penetration into surrounding tissues
    5. Rupture of tumor membrane

    Author of lecture Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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    way of presentation is little bit weird to me
    By Ming Lok C. on 09. November 2019 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

    Carlo Raj,'s way of presentation is little bit weird to me

     
    Great intro
    By Victoria W. on 03. March 2019 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

    Well taught and succinct. I enjoyed his style of lecturing, as he uses good intonations.

     
    Poor
    By Max G. on 20. August 2018 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

    I don't like Carlo's style of presentation. It is also at odds with Robbins and Cotran. The worst video on Lecturio

     
    This videos and Carlo made me like Pathology
    By Juan C. on 13. July 2018 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

    I will going to enter to the world of pathology next semester and i really didn't think i would like it but this videos might have changed my mind, Thanks Carlo for this material