Nausea Medication: Antiemetics – Gastrointestinal Drugs

by Pravin Shukle, MD

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    Let's move on to the treatment of nausea or the anti-emetics. It's actually a huge category of drugs. We have the serotonin 3 blockers like ondansetron. We have the dopamine 2 blockers. We have the histamine 1 blockers. We have the antimuscarinics, the corticosteroids, cannabinoids which is a relatively new category, and the neurokinin receptor antagonists. Let's move on to the histamine antagonists. Now, we discussed some of these histamine antagonists already in our psychiatry lectures. H1 blockers include drugs like diphenhydramine which is also called Benadryl. Now, some of the phenothiazines that are used in psychosis are also actually quite good anti-emetics. And I'd encourage you to go back to those lectures and have another look at that just to understand how they're working in the brain. Now, these agents are also used in allergy, cough and cold, flu medications, so they are very commonly used, they are very very good at their activity, and they are actually sold over the counter. Interestingly enough, they are now being used as a recreational drug particularly by people who are of lesser means, and it's worrisome change in the way that we sell medications over the counter. Scopolamine is a well known anti-emetic. It's used as the primary anti-emetic in probably most of the countries in the world, except the United States. It's used in preoperative analgesia, in sea sickness, in motion sickness, ocular irritation, and irritable bowel syndrome. So it's one of these drugs that's on the 100 most effective or most useful drugs in healthcare system put out by the United Nations World Health Organizations. It's available as a pill, as a patch, as an eye drop and also intravenously. So, you've probably heard about scopolamine patches. They are very commonly sold before you get on your first deep...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Nausea Medication: Antiemetics – Gastrointestinal Drugs by Pravin Shukle, MD is from the course Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Blocks histamine receptor - type 1.
    2. Blocks histamine receptor - type 2.
    3. Blocks histamine receptor - type 3.
    4. Blocks muscarinic type acetylcholine receptor.
    5. Activates histamine receptor - type 2.
    1. Ondansetron - Serotonin antagonist Dexamethasone - Corticosteroid Dronabinol - Cannabinoid
    2. Ondansetron - Serotonin antagonist Dexamethasone - Cannabinoid Dronabinol - Corticosteroid
    3. Ondansetron - Serotonin agonist Dexamethasone - Mineralocorticoid Dronabinol - Cannabinoid
    4. Ondansetron - Serotonin agonist Dexamethasone - Cannabinoid Dronabinol - Corticosteroid
    5. Ondansetron - Corticosteroid Dexamethasone - Serotonin antagonist Dronabinol - Cannabinoid
    1. Increase in appetite, good for weight maintenance.
    2. Decrease in appetite, good for weight loss.
    3. These medications provide euphoria, similar to marijuana use.
    4. Decrease blood pressure, good for hypertensives.
    5. These medications have no side effects.
    1. It targets the area postrema in the brain.
    2. It targets the NK-1 receptors in the GI.
    3. It targets the serotonin receptors in the the brain.
    4. It targets the nerves of the peripheral nervous system.
    5. It targets all nausea receptors in the body equally.

    Author of lecture Nausea Medication: Antiemetics – Gastrointestinal Drugs

     Pravin Shukle, MD

    Pravin Shukle, MD

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