Mitochondrial, Inflammatory, Endocrine and Drug Induced Myopathies

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    We’ll walk through a few mitochondrial myopathies. To begin with, remember, in us, as you carry out as humans, we have two different types of DNA, right? We have our somatic or our nuclear DNA, and then we have our mitochondrial DNA. The mitochondrial DNA is something that we inherit from mama, right? From our mothers. So here, there’s a couple of ones that we have to know about, definitely know about mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms. In other words, that’s MELAS. The other one is -- Pay attention to RRF, that’s ragged red fiber. These are the ones that you’ve also talked about in biochemistry. Hence, I am not elaborating on the abbreviation. Either maternal inherited or sporadic, mother may be unaffected carrier though. Frequently accompanied by other neurologic manifestation. For example, MELAS, Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and, what does S stand for? Stroke-like symptoms. Our muscle biopsy, what would you expect to see? What’s that RRF stand for? Ragged red fiber, which contains what? You must know what ragged red fiber contains. Accumulation of glycogen and what’s known as your lipids. Our topic here is inflammatory myopathy. Begin by looking at dermatomyositis. Allow the name to speak to you. What does derma mean? Skin. What does myo- mean? Muscle. Hence, we’re doing our skeletal muscle diseases. Then we have polymyositis. And finally, we have what’s known as our inclusion body myositis. In other words, inflammation. Shoulder and hip girdle weakness is present. Oh, be careful, huh. There was actually a condition that we called what? Limb and hip girdle myopathies or dystrophies. So, be careful with those, right? Versus here, we’re dealing with shoulder and hip, but I have to give you further detail, as will your clinical picture. Don’t worry. Relative sparing of, once...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Mitochondrial, Inflammatory, Endocrine and Drug Induced Myopathies by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Polyneuropathy. It contains the following chapters:

    • Mitochondrial Myopathies
    • Inflammatory Myopathies
    • Endocrine Myopathies
    • Drug/Toxic Induced Myopathies

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease
    2. MELAS
    3. MERRF
    4. Progressive external ophthalmoplegia
    5. Kearns-Sayre syndrome
    1. Both males and females are 100% affected in the first generation siblings.
    2. 50% males and 50% percent females are affected in the 1st generation of siblings
    3. Males are affected and females are carriers of the 1st generation of siblings.
    4. 50% males are affected and 25% females are affected of the 1st generation of siblings.
    5. The first generation of siblings are not affected but the 2nd generation males are only affected.
    1. Glycogen and neutral lipids
    2. Mucopolysaccharides and protein
    3. Lysosomes and mitochondria
    4. Mucin and melanin
    5. Immunoglobulins and inclusions
    1. Dermatomyositis
    2. Limb-girdle dystrophy
    3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    4. Becker dystrophy
    5. Inclusion body myositis
    1. Thyrotoxic myopathy
    2. Hypothyroid myopathy
    3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    4. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
    5. Myotonic dystrophy
    1. Mitochondrial myopathy
    2. Inflammatory myopathy
    3. Inclusion body myositis
    4. Necrotizing myopathy
    5. Endocrine myopathy

    Author of lecture Mitochondrial, Inflammatory, Endocrine and Drug Induced Myopathies

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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